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Scott Douglas, William R. Falcão and Gordon A. Bloom

pathways of Paralympic coaches have never been divided into periodic stages, some findings have identified similarities in the career development and learning pathways of able-bodied coaches of athletes with disabilities. For example, Cregan, Bloom, and Reid ( 2007 ) interviewed six Paralympic swim coaches

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Brock Laschowski, Naser Mehrabi and John McPhee

Wheelchair curling debuted at the 2006 Paralympic Games. Competing athletes utilize the same stones and ice sheets as Olympic curlers, although sweeping (ie, using a broom to control the stone’s trajectory) is omitted and the stone must be pushed from a stationary wheelchair using a delivery stick

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Jeffrey Martin, Mario Vassallo, Jacklyn Carrico and Ellen Armstrong

, 2017 ). In particular, elite sport competitions such as the Paralympics and Olympics are considered ideal settings to observe intense emotional expressions associated with both success (e.g., joy) and failure (e.g., anguish) because winning at the Paralympics and Olympics is considered the pinnacle of

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Irineu Loturco, Lucas A. Pereira, Ciro Winckler, Weverton L. Santos, Ronaldo Kobal and Michael McGuigan

populations. 6 This could provide practitioners with more accurate information regarding athletes who regularly train and compete at extremely low velocities (ie, bar velocity at 1RM). 6 , 10 Furthermore, given the lack of studies involving Paralympic athletes at all levels and disciplines, it would also be

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Ljudmila Zaletelj

Edited by Simon Darcy, Stephen Frawley, and Daryl Adair. Published 2017 by Palgrave Macmillan , London, UK. $58.16 , available in eBook for $54.99 . 302 pp., ISBN: 978-1-137-43520-0 Managing the Paralympics , edited by Simon Darcy, Stephen Frawley, and Daryl Adair, brings together the work of

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Cathy McKay, Jung Yeon Park and Martin Block

, 2008 ; Xafopoulos, Kudlacek, & Evaggelinou, 2009 ). Research has tended to compare contact settings as opposed to addressing contact theory ( Slininger et al., 2000 ). Of the aforementioned research referencing contact theory, four studies are specific to Paralympic School Day (PSD) and have focused

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Daniel P. Joaquim, Claudia R. Juzwiak and Ciro Winckler

dietary interventions, minimizing nutritional deficiencies ( Thomas et al., 2016 ). In this way, the aim of this study was to assess the diet quality of Brazilian Paralympic sprinters, the variations of quality between days and of the energy intake in relation to the intensity of the exercise performed in

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Valeria Rosso, Laura Gastaldi, Walter Rapp, Stefan Lindinger, Yves Vanlandewijck, Sami Äyrämö and Vesa Linnamo

Paralympic cross-country (XC) sit-skiing is a Paralympic discipline in which athletes are skiing seated because they have an impairment in function or structure of the lower extremities, pelvis, and/or trunk. XC sit-skiers ski using a sledge mounted on a pair of XC skis, named sit-ski, and a couple

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Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington

variations within and between subject groups imply that the stress response to TL, competition, and additional external stressors is highly individual. 10 Despite the shift in focus from rehabilitative participation to elite-level sport, research into Paralympic sport has lagged behind the large body of

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Floor Morriën, Matthew J. D. Taylor and Florentina J. Hettinga

Purpose:

To provide an overview of biomechanical studies in Paralympic research and their relevance for performance in Paralympic sports.

Methods:

The search terms paralympic biomechanics, paralympic sport performance, paralympic athlete performance, and paralympic athlete were entered into the electronic database PubMed.

Results:

Thirty-four studies were found. Biomechanical studies in Paralympics mainly contributed to performance enhancement by technical optimization (n = 32) and/or injury prevention (n = 6). In addition, biomechanics was found to be important in understanding activity limitation caused by various impairments, which is relevant for evidence-based classification in Paralympic sports (n = 6). Distinctions were made between biomechanical studies in sitting (41%), standing (38%), and swimming athletes (21%). In sitting athletes, mostly kinematics and kinetics in wheelchair propulsion were studied, mainly in athletes with spinal-cord injuries. In addition, kinetics and/or kinematics in wheelchair basketball, seated discus throwing, stationary shot-putting, hand-cycling, sit-skiing, and ice sledge hockey received attention. In standing sports, primarily kinematics of athletes with amputations performing jump sports and running and the optimization of prosthetic devices were investigated. No studies were reported on other standing sports. In swimming, mainly kick rate and resistance training were studied.

Conclusions:

Biomechanical research is important for performance by gaining insight into technical optimization, injury prevention, and evidence-based classification in Paralympic sports. In future studies it is advised to also include physiological and biomechanical measures, allowing the assessment of the capability of the human body, as well as the resulting movement.