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Richard Tahtinen, Hafrun Kristjansdottir, Daniel T. Olason, and Robert Morris

positive and negative affect items in the past week. Another commonly utilized self-report measure ( Golding et al., 2020 ; Trojian, 2016 ) is the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, Kroenke & Spitzer, 2002 ), which is specifically designed to assess the presence of the nine depressive

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Sylvia E. Badon, Esti Iturralde, Linda Nkemere, Nerissa Nance, and Lyndsay A. Avalos

depression screening program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Women are screened 2 times during pregnancy (at the first prenatal visit and at 24–26 wk gestation) and once postpartum (at 4- to 6-wk postpartum) using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). 35 , 36 The PHQ-9 has been validated as

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Pauliina Husu, Kari Tokola, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Harri Sievänen, and Tommi Vasankari

 al., 2021 ). The present study included 1,823 participants (61% women, mean age 47.4 years, SD 12.5), who met the acceptance criterion of the accelerometer use and had filled a modified nine-item Finnish version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9-mFIN) ( Suni et al., 2021 ). The study was carried

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Richard Tahtinen, Michael McDougall, Niels Feddersen, Olli Tikkanen, Robert Morris, and Noora J. Ronkainen

 = 11), volleyball ( n  = 6), water polo ( n  = 6), and martial arts (cluster) ( n  = 5). In total, athletes represented 54 different types of sports. Measures Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9) assesses depressive symptoms (present more than half the days) during the past two weeks ( Kroenke

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Jens Kleinert, Jeannine Ohlert, and Marion Sulprizio

exhibit depressive or other mental illness-related symptoms. This article deals with two instruments for screening mental health and mental illness that are well established outside the field of competitive sports, namely the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2; Kroenke et al., 2003 ) and the WHO Well

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Aidan D. Kraus and Erica Tibbetts

as transgender and/or GQ/GNC ( Gonzales & Henning-Smith, 2017 ; Ullman, 2014 ; Weber, 2016 ), so these identities were included within the demographic questions. Depression: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 The participants responded to the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) ( Kroenke et

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Stacey E. Aaron, Chris M. Gregory, and Annie N. Simpson


One-third of individuals with stroke report symptoms of depression, which has a negative impact on recovery. Physical activity (PA) is a potentially effective therapy. Our objective was to examine the associations of subjectively assessed PA levels and symptoms of depression in a nationally representative stroke sample.


We conducted a cross-sectional study of 175 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012 cycle. Moderate, vigorous, and combination equivalent PA metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes per week averages were derived from the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, and .the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines/American College of Sports Medicine recommendations of ≥500 MET-minutes per week of moderate, vigorous, or combination equivalent PA were used as cut points. Depression symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.


Meeting moderate PA guidelines resulted in 74% lower odds of having depression symptoms (P < .0001) and 89% lower odds of major symptoms of depression (P = .0003). Meeting vigorous guidelines showed a 91% lower odds of having mild symptoms of depression (P = .04). Participating in some moderate, vigorous, or combination equivalent PA revealed the odds of depression symptoms 13 times greater compared with meeting guidelines (P = .005); odds of mild symptoms of depression were 9 times greater (P = .01); and odds of major symptoms of depression were 15 times greater (P = .006).


There is a lower risk of developing mild symptoms of depression when vigorous guidelines for PA are met and developing major symptoms of depression when moderate guidelines met. Participating in some PA is not enough to reduce the risk of depression symptoms.

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Lorin A. Cartwright and Timothy Neal

were at risk for self-harm by doing an assessment, even though that was not the primary complaint. 52 Using a screening tool can provide early detection for the athletic trainer. For adult athletes some reliable screening tools include Patient Health Questionnaire 4, 46 , 53 , 54 Patient Health

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Richard E. Tahtinen and Hafrun Kristjansdottir

Iceland ( Ingólfsdóttir, 2014 ). In the current sample, reliability was shown to be very good (α = .90). Responses with more than 10% of missing values on the scale were not included. Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ – 9) Is a nine-item self-report scale, that assesses depressive symptoms during the

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Suyeong Bae, Monique R. Pappadis, Sanghun Nam, and Ickpyo Hong

-intensity physical activity per week. Those who were physically inactive, who did not meet the above criteria, were coded with a physical activity practice level = 0. Depression Depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9; Kroenke & Spitzer, 2002 ). The PHQ-9 is often used with adults as