The aerobic power and body composition of 18 sightless adolescents (10 males and 8 females) has been tested by standard laboratory techniques. While attending a residential school and participating in specific sessions of vigorous endurance activity at least three times per week, their fitness was comparable to that of normally sighted adolescents (estimated body fat 14.9, 25.3%, directly measured cycle ergometer maximum oxygen intake 51.7, 39.7 ml $$ kg-1 min-1). However, after a 10-week summer vacation spent with their parents, the physical condition of these children had deteriorated to levels previously reported for blind children (estimated body fat 14.7, 27.1%, directly measured maximum oxygen intake 44.9, 33.7 ml $$ kg-1 min-1). It is concluded that sightless students can attain normal levels of fitness for their age if given an adequate and suitably adapted physical activity program. However, if condition is to be maintained, programs should stress patterns of activity suited to the home environment, which typically has no special equipment or trained guides.
Josie di Natale, Mary Lee, Graham Ward, and Roy J. Shephard
Eldon E. Snyder and Elmer Spreitzer
This study analyzes correlates of adherence to a physical fitness regimen. The sample consisted of adults who had volunteered to take a physical fitness stress test at a sports physiology laboratory. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to persons who had taken the stress test over the past 5 years. The rationale for the study was an attempt to develop a profile of the prospective dropout from a physical fitness program in order to permit special intervention to enhance the probability of adherence. The findings showed that 31% of the persons in our sample were basically inactive subsequent to the stress test. Our set of 11 predictor variables was able to explain 33% of the variance in physical activity.
Renee L. Polubinsky and Jennifer M. Plos
Weight training is an excellent example of where coaches need to have acquired knowledge and skills in the realms of sports medicine, strength and conditioning, and risk management for safety and injury prevention. There are several exercises and lifting techniques that may increase the risk of shoulder injuries. This article will focus on the prevalence of injuries from weight training, a brief discussion of shoulder anatomy, three of the more common shoulder pathologies, and weight training modifications to assist in the prevention of these shoulder pathologies.
Cheryl A. Coker and Brittney Herrick
statements best describes them and then to check whether the statement they chose is just “sort of true” or “really true” for them. Scores are then tabulated to yield measures of physical self-concept across six subscales: (a) sport competence, (b) physical condition competence, (c) body attractiveness
Petros G. Botonis, Ioannis Malliaros, Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Theodoros I. Platanou, and Argyris G. Toubekis
’ technical skills is perceived as more important. Then, training practices including specific water polo drills as an alternative for developing players’ physical conditioning could be adopted. Moreover, as a team sport, water polo is characterized by several unpredictable situations during offensive or
Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Robert McCunn, and Andrew Murray
physiological demands of the sport, 16 , 17 there remains no comprehensive evaluation of the collective array of performance, physical conditioning, injury, and training/game characteristics. This is surprising given the high injury rates (36 per 1000 athlete exposures) 18 in collegiate AF and the negatively
Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim, and Louise M. Burke
Numerous factors contribute to peak athletic performance. Among these, a strong foundation in physical conditioning and sport-specific experience, in addition to a bespoke and periodized training and nutrition program, the latter based predominately from whole food choices, are essential. Once
This 2-year prospective study examined the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women (N = 143) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled exercise trial. Across the 2-year period, increases in physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy and reductions in body mass index (BMI) were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition, and reductions in BMI were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The effects of PA, self-efficacy, and BMI on changes in physical self-worth and global self-esteem were mediated by changes in self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The results of this longitudinal analysis support the hierarchical and multidimensional structure of self-esteem and indicate that middle-aged women can enhance how they perceive their condition and body attractiveness by continued participation in physical activity, increasing their self-efficacy, and maintaining healthy BMI levels.
Joke Opdenacker, Christophe Delecluse, and Filip Boen
The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the long-term effects of a lifestyle physical activity intervention (n = 60) and a structured exercise intervention (n = 60) on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in older adults compared with a control group (n = 66), and (2) to test the longitudinal fit of the exercise and self-esteem model (EXSEM). Immediately after the 11-month interventions, the lifestyle group showed significant improvements in self-perceived physical condition, sport competence, body attractiveness, and physical self-worth. In the structured group, significant effects were found on physical condition and sport competence. One year later, the lifestyle program had significant effects on body attractiveness and global self-esteem, while the structured group showed significant improvements in physical condition, sport competence, and body attractiveness. Path analyses revealed a good fit for the EXSEM across the 2-year period.
Orges Lena, Jasemin Todri, Ardita Todri, José Luis Martínez Gil, and Maria Gomez Gallego
There is a real interest in knowing why low back pain (LBP) has become a very common disease in elite gymnastics athletes, given that it is assumed that they are in good physical conditions. One of the main causes cited in the literature about the reason why even athletes with a high physical