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Phillip Ward, Myung-Ah Lee, and Myung-Ah Lee

In this article we provide a review of theory and research on the use of peers to influence learning outcomes in physical education. First, we summarize the empirical literature on the use of peers in general education. Next, Piaget’s equilibration theory, Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, and Skinner’s behavior analytic theory are discussed with particular reference to their implications for the use of peers in educational settings. This is followed by a review of findings from research studies using peers in physical education settings and includes suggestions for future research. We conclude with a discussion of implications for practice.

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David W. Rainey, Nicholas R. Santilli, and Kevin Fallon

This study examined baseball players' conceptions of umpires' authority. Eighty male players, ages 6-22 years, completed an abbreviated Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks (Furth, 1970), which was used to measure cognitive development. They then heard recorded scenarios describing conflicts with an umpire and a parent. Players indicated if they would argue with the authorities, why they obey the authorities (obedience), and why the authorities get to make decisions (legitimacy). Obedience and legitimacy responses were categorized into Damon's (1977) three levels. Measures of arguing, obedience, and legitimacy were analyzed for four age levels and three levels of cognitive development. Older and more cognitively developed players were more likely to argue with authorities. Conceptions of obedience and legitimacy were positively associated with age, though they were not related to scores of cognitive development. The positive relationship between age and authority conceptions and the absence of a relationship between cognitive development and authority conceptions are both consistent with Damon's position.

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Andrew Rudd, Susan Mullane, and Sharon Stoll

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure the moral judgments of sport managers called the Moral Judgments of Sport Managers Instrument (MJSMI). More specifically, our intention was to measure moral judgment on a unidimensional level given past research suggesting moral judgment is a unidimensional construct (Hahm, Beller, & Stoll, 1989; Kohlberg, 1984; Piaget, 1932; Rest, 1979, 1986). The MJSMI contains 8 moral dilemmas/stories in the context of sport management. Sport managers respond to the dilemmas on a four-point Likert scale. Three pilot studies were undertaken to develop the MJSMI. Exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency analysis were the primary methods for assaying reliability and validity. Results consistently showed that sport managers’ responses vary depending on the nature of the moral scenario and thus do not indicate a unidimensional construct. The reasons for inconsistent responses are thoroughly discussed.

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Josephine Blagrave and Taylor Guy

make decisions, a topic that frequently comes into question for researchers attempting to conduct research in this area of study. Using Piaget’s stages of development, the authors address these issues in research decision making and the legal framework of consent. Part 2, “Planning to Do Research with

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Daniela Corbetta, Rebecca F. Wiener, Sabrina L. Thurman, and Emalie McMahon

“Visually-Guided” Reaching Hypothesis The assumption that infants initially need vision to figure out how to bring their hand in contact with a wanted object dates back to the 1930s. Jean Piaget (1890–1986) was one of the first to provide detailed descriptions of the development of infant reaching based on

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James E. Johnson

, Piaget’s ( 1952 ) theory of cognitive development, and Bandura’s ( 1977 ) social learning theory, among others. Each of these pioneers of social and behavioral psychology emphasized the individual as a function of their own personal characteristics within their environment. Contemporary models of service

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Terilyn C. Shigeno, E. Earlynn Lauer, Leslee A. Fisher, Emily J. Johnson, and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek

moral if it is motivated by moral reasons (e.g.,  Piaget, 1965/1932 ). Thus, when an athlete helps an opponent up after a fall, those who view morality as rooted in emotions would understand this action as a commitment to internalized social norms that cannot be rationally justified ( Shields

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Kent Griffin

domain (experiential education and constructivism). Experiential education, according to most historians, was emphasized by the writings of John Dewey ( 1986 ) ( Sutherland & Legge, 2016 ), whereas constructivism was born from the work of Piaget ( 1985 ). Together, these theories posit that learning

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Kimberly A. Clevenger, Michael J. Wierenga, Cheryl A. Howe, and Karin A. Pfeiffer

age group should be verified by further research but are supported by changes in motor skills, play preferences, and perceived affordances with age ( Malina, Bouchard, & Bar-Or, 2004 ; Piaget, Cook, & Norton, 1952 ; Roberton & Halverson, 1984 ; Wortham & Frost, 1990 ). During elementary school

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Christiane Lange-Küttner and Ridhi Kochhar

psychologists hold the assumption that operational intelligence would override, control, and direct Gestalt-like fast impressions (Field or F-factor) ( Pascual-Leone, 1989 ; Piaget, 1969 ). Over-inclusiveness from this perspective would imply a rejection of the relevance of superficial features such as