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Timo Byl, Jennifer A. Cole and Lori A. Livingston

Context:

Q-angle size has been found to correlate poorly with skeletal measures of pelvic breadth and femur length. Because the patella is exposed to the forces of quadriceps contraction, muscular forces might also affect Q-angle magnitude.

Objective:

To compare bilateral measurements of the Q angle with selected skeletal and muscular strength measures.

Design:

In vivo study of anthropometric and quadriceps peak torque measures.

Setting:

Research laboratory.

Participants:

Thirty-four healthy men and women, mean age 20.9 ± 2.7 years.

Main Outcome Measures:

Q angles, pelvic breadths, femur lengths, and peak torque during dynamic knee-extension exercise, normalized to body weight.

Results:

Significant differences in Q-angle magnitude, femur length, and peak torqueBW were observed between sexes, but not between limbs. Pelvic breadth did not differ significantly between sexes. Correlational analysis revealed a weak, yet significant, linear relationship between Q angle and peak torqueBW in the right lower limb.

Conclusions:

These findings lend some support to the notion that Q-angle magnitude is inversely related to quadriceps strength.

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Jennifer M. Medina McKeon, Craig R. Denegar and Jay Hertel

The purpose of this study was to formulate a predictive equation to discriminate males from females using static and dynamic lower extremity (LE) alignments. Twenty-four healthy adults volunteered to participate. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to assess the kinematics of the right hip and knee during two functional tasks. Six measures of static LE alignment were also performed. Statistical comparisons were made between males and females for all variables. Static and dynamic variables that were significantly different by sex were entered into separate discriminant analyses for each task. The resulting equations were each able to correctly predict 87% of the subjects by sex. Fifty-eight percent and 55% of the variance was explained by sex for the vertical jump and plant & jump, respectively. The frontal plane hip angle was the best predictor of sex for both tasks. While there were statistically significant differences between the sexes for static measures of LE alignment, kinematic measures were better at discriminating between sexes.

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Hyunjae Jeon, Melanie L. McGrath, Neal Grandgenett and Adam B. Rosen

. Tibial torsion was measured supine as the angle between the imaginary vertical line, and a bimalleolar axis was measured. 12 Supine q-angle (Sup Q) and standing q-angle (Stan Q) used the landmarks of the anterior superior iliac spine, patellar center, and tibial tuberosity. 13 Genu recurvatum was

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John H. Hollman, Kimberly E. Kolbeck, Jamie L. Hitchcock, Jonathan W. Koverman and David A. Krause

Context:

Hip-muscle weakness might be associated with impaired biomechanics and postures that contribute to lower extremity injuries.

Objective:

To examine relationships between hip-muscle strength, Q angle, and foot pronation.

Design:

Correlational study.

Setting:

Academic laboratory.

Participants:

33 healthy adults.

Main Outcome Measures:

Maximal isometric hip abduction (Abd), adduction (Add), external-rotation (ER) and internal-rotation (IR) strength; Q angle of the knee; and longitudinal arch angle of the foot. We analyzed Pearson product– moment (r) correlation coefficients between the Abd/Add and ER/IR force ratios, Q angle, and longitudinal arch angle.

Results:

The hip Abd/Add force ratio was correlated with longitudinal arch angle (r = .35, P = .025).

Conclusions:

Reduced strength of the hip abductors relative to adductors is associated with increased pronation at the foot. Clinicians should be aware of this relationship when examining patients with lower extremity impairments.

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Matthew J. Moncrieff and Lori A. Livingston

Context:

Structural and coronal-plane-alignment characteristics of the lower limb are frequently cited as factors contributing to knee pathologies.

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability characteristics of a digital-photographic-goniometric method (DPGM) of measurement for 2-dimensional (2D) coronal-plane lower limb measurements of the quadriceps (Q) angle, tibiofemoral (TF) angle, and femur length in human participants adopting a self-selected- or Romberg-stance position.

Design:

Reliability study.

Setting:

University motion-analysis laboratory.

Participants:

A convenience sample of 20 healthy young adult men and women.

Main Outcome Measures:

Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), 95% confidence intervals, and standard error of the measurements.

Results:

Intratester- and intertester-reliability coefficients for the Q angle (ICCs .458–845 and .257–737) were consistently lower than those for the TF angle (ICCs .627–.904 and .700–.839) or femur length (ICCs .867–.958 and .866–.944). Q angles were also significantly larger (13.4%) in the Romberg- vs self-selected-stance position (P < .001) and larger (20.2%) in the left limb than the right limb.

Conclusions:

The DPGM has the potential to produce accurate and reliable measurements of selected 2D lower limb measures. However, the reliability characteristics depend on the ability of the testers to correctly and repeatably landmark the anatomical sites used to define the measurements of interest and might be influenced by other factors such as the stance position adopted, the complexity of the variable (ie, number of anatomical landmarks and segments), and the size of the captured image. Further investigation of these latter factors is warranted.

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* 2 2000 9 1 3 14 10.1123/jsr.9.1.3 Research Measurement of Knee-Joint-Position Sense in Women with Genu Recurvatum Janice K. Loudon * 2 2000 9 1 15 25 10.1123/jsr.9.1.15 What Determines the Magnitude of the Q Angle? A Preliminary Study of Selected Skeletal and Muscular Measures Timo Byl

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AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi-Shad, Christopher McCrum and Kiros Karamanidis

, those evaluating the participants were not aware of the group allocation (i.e., blinding of assessors). Inclusion criteria were an age between 60 and 70 years, a tibial mechanical axis (TMA) ≤4° from vertical, indicating alignment ( Barrios et al., 2016 ), Q angle > 18° ( Magee, 2014 ), medial malleolus

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Kanako Shimoura, Yasuaki Nakayama, Yuto Tashiro, Takayuki Hotta, Yusuke Suzuki, Seishiro Tasaka, Tomofumi Matsushita, Keisuke Matsubara, Mirei Kawagoe, Takuya Sonoda, Yuki Yokota and Tomoki Aoyama

may also have reduced mobility and stability in multiple lower-extremity joints, as well as reduced ankle dorsiflexion, increased pronation, and larger Q‐angles. Consistent with this, the participants in this study were found to have sustained a variety of injuries, thus providing additional evidence

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Hyunjae Jeon and Abbey C. Thomas

precursor to subsequent patellofemoral osteoarthritis. 9 A systematic review established numerous risk factors of PFP, including dysfunction of knee extensor and/or hip abductor musculature, increased Q-angle, abnormal vastii reflex timing, patellar compression or tilting, and increased ground reaction

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Mohammad H. Izadi Farhadi, Foad Seidi, Hooman Minoonejad and Abbey C. Thomas

H , Hayes W . Patellofemoral contact pressures. The influence of q-angle and tendofemoral contact . J Bone Joint Surg . 1984 ; 66 ( 5 ): 715 – 724 . PubMed ID: 6725318 doi: 10.2106/00004623-198466050-00010 12. Hollman JH , Ginos BE , Kozuchowski J , Vaughn AS , Krause DA