( de Greeff et al., 2018 ; Vazou et al., 2019 ). However, only three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included in these meta-analyses have directly compared the effects of aerobic and cognitively demanding exercise, the so-called head-to-head comparisons studies ( Egger, Benzing, Conzelmann
Anna Meijer, Marsh Königs, Irene M.J. van der Fels, Chris Visscher, Roel J. Bosker, Esther Hartman, and Jaap Oosterlaan
Brian C. Martinson, A. Lauren Crain, Nancy E. Sherwood, Marcia G. Hayes, Nicolaas P. Pronk, and Patrick J. O’Connor
To assess the representativeness of older adults recruited to a physical activity maintenance RCT by conducting sequential comparisons to characterize study sample composition changes occurring between sampling frame construction and study enrollment.
Study subjects (N = 1049) were 50 to 70 year old men and women who had increased physical activity within the past year recruited from a Midwestern managed care organization.
Those responding to an initial mailed screener differed on demographic, behavioral, and SES characteristics from those not responding. Compared with ineligibles, eligible individuals were significantly younger, more highly educated, and more likely to report improved health in the prior year. Compared with eligible individuals who did not enroll, enrollees had generally higher education and income.
Physical activity promotion programs in older adults may have limited reach and substantial volunteer bias. Additional strategies to increase the reach of physical activity interventions into the target population are needed.
Leanne Sawle, Jennifer Freeman, and Jonathan Marsden
that a customized targeted compression orthosis may offer further benefits. Therefore, to explore the role of compression in injury management, and specifically the use of external pelvic compression in the form of a customized compression orthosis, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was indicated
Rachel A. Jones, Jacque Kelly, Dylan P. Cliff, Marijka Batterham, and Anthony D. Okely
Single sex after-school physical activity programs show potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and potential efficacy of single-sex after-school physical activity programs for overweight and at-risk children from low-income communities.
7-month, 2-arm parallel-group, RCT, conducted at an elementary school in a disadvantaged area in Wollongong, Australia (March-November 2010).
20 boys and 17 girls were randomized to intervention (PA) or active comparison groups (HL). Primary outcomes included implementation, acceptability, percentage body fat and BMI z-score.
The PA programs were acceptable with high implementation and enjoyment rates. At 7 months postintervention girls in the PA group displayed greater changes in percentage body fat (adjust diff. = -1.70, [95% CI -3.25, -0.14]; d = -0.83) and BMI z-score (-0.19 [-0.36, -0.03]; d= -1.00). At 7 months boys in the PA group showed greater changes in waist circumference (-3.87 cm [-7.80, 0.15]; d= -0.90) and waist circumference z-score (-0.33 [-0.64, -0.03]; d= -0.98). For both boys’ and girls’ PA groups, changes in adiposity were not maintained at 12-month follow-up.
Single-sex after-school physical activity programs are acceptable and potentially efficacious in preventing unhealthy weight gain among overweight and at-risk children. However improvements are hard to sustain once programs finish operating.
Leigh F. Callahan, Rebecca J. Cleveland, Jack Shreffler, Jennifer M. Hootman, Thelma J. Mielenz, Britta Schoster, Teresa Brady, and Todd Schwartz
Adults with arthritis can benefit from participation in physical activity and may be assisted by organized programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 20-week behavioral lifestyle intervention, Active Living Every Day (ALED), for improvements in primary outcomes (physical activity levels, aerobic endurance, function, symptoms).
A 20-week randomized controlled community trial was conducted in 354 adults. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 20 weeks in the intervention and wait-list control groups. The intervention group was also assessed at 6 and 12 months. Mean outcomes were determined by multilevel regression models in the intervention and control groups at follow-up points.
At 20 weeks, the intervention group significantly increased participation in physical activity, and improved aerobic endurance, and select measures of function while pain, fatigue and stiffness remained status quo. In the intervention group, significant improvements in physical activity at 20 weeks were maintained at 6 and 12 months, and stiffness decreased.
ALED appears to improve participation in physical activity, aerobic endurance, and function without exacerbating disease symptoms in adults with arthritis.
Brad Donohue, Yulia Gavrilova, Marina Galante, Elena Gavrilova, Travis Loughran, Jesse Scott, Graig Chow, Christopher P. Plant, and Daniel N. Allen
Athletes experience unique stressors that have been indicated to compromise their mental wellness and sport performance, yet they underutilize mental health services. Indeed, very few mental health interventions for athletes have been developed to fit sport culture, and well-controlled mental health outcome research in athlete populations is warranted. In this randomized controlled trial, a sport specific optimization approach to concurrent mental health and sport performance (The Optimum Performance Program in Sports; TOPPS) was examined. Seventy-four collegiate athletes (NCAA = 42; club = 11; intramural = 21) formally assessed for mental health diagnostic severity were randomly assigned to TOPPS or campus counseling/psychological services as usual (SAU) after baseline. Dependent measures assessed general mental health, mood, mental health factors affecting sport performance in training, competition and life outside of sports, days using substances, sexual risk behaviors, happiness in relationships, relationships affecting sport performance, and contributions of relationship to sport performance. Intent to treat repeated measures analyses indicated that participants in TOPPS consistently demonstrated better outcomes than SAU up to 8-months post-randomization and for mental health/substance use measures, particularly when diagnostic criteria were most severe. Recommendations are provided in light of the results to assist sport-specific mental health intervention development and implementation within athlete populations.
Philippa J.A. Nicolson, Vicky Duong, Esther Williamson, Sally Hopewell, and Sarah E. Lamb
from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise interventions for older adults, and clinically are less likely to be prescribed exercise than younger people ( Smith, Collier, Smith, & Mansfield, 2019 ; Witham et al., 2020 ). A recent U.K. research priority setting exercise found that health
Steriani Elavsky, Lenka Knapova, Adam Klocek, and David Smahel
and randomized control trials [RCTs]) published between 2012 and 2016 to assess the effectiveness of mHealth in changing health behaviors and improving disease recovery in older adults. The review had a broad focus on health behaviors ranging from PA, dietary habits, and sleep to medication adherence
Ryan D. Henke, Savana M. Kettner, Stephanie M. Jensen, Augustus C.K. Greife, and Christopher J. Durall
searched for studies on the effects of early (within 4 wk) subsymptom exacerbation LIAEX after medically diagnosed SRC in adolescents. • The search yielded 3 articles 2 , 7 , 8 that fit inclusion/exclusion criteria. One level 1b randomized controlled trial (RCT), 2 and 1 level 2b nonrandomized trial (NRT
Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía, and Carl Foster
protocols. 2 Also, a large capacity to sustain high intensities during prolonged submaximal work has been reported. For example, the ventilatory (VT) and respiratory compensation (RCT) thresholds have been measured at ∼70% and ∼90% of VO 2 max, respectively, 1 – 3 and a gross efficiency of ∼24% has been