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The Effects of Aerobic Versus Cognitively Demanding Exercise Interventions on Executive Functioning in School-Aged Children: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

Anna Meijer, Marsh Königs, Irene M.J. van der Fels, Chris Visscher, Roel J. Bosker, Esther Hartman, and Jaap Oosterlaan

( de Greeff et al., 2018 ; Vazou et al., 2019 ). However, only three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included in these meta-analyses have directly compared the effects of aerobic and cognitively demanding exercise, the so-called head-to-head comparisons studies ( Egger, Benzing, Conzelmann

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Population Reach and Recruitment Bias in a Maintenance RCT in Physically Active Older Adults

Brian C. Martinson, A. Lauren Crain, Nancy E. Sherwood, Marcia G. Hayes, Nicolaas P. Pronk, and Patrick J. O’Connor


To assess the representativeness of older adults recruited to a physical activity maintenance RCT by conducting sequential comparisons to characterize study sample composition changes occurring between sampling frame construction and study enrollment.


Study subjects (N = 1049) were 50 to 70 year old men and women who had increased physical activity within the past year recruited from a Midwestern managed care organization.


Those responding to an initial mailed screener differed on demographic, behavioral, and SES characteristics from those not responding. Compared with ineligibles, eligible individuals were significantly younger, more highly educated, and more likely to report improved health in the prior year. Compared with eligible individuals who did not enroll, enrollees had generally higher education and income.


Physical activity promotion programs in older adults may have limited reach and substantial volunteer bias. Additional strategies to increase the reach of physical activity interventions into the target population are needed.

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A Pilot RCT Investigating the Effects of Targeted Compression on Athletes With Pelvic/Groin Pain

Leanne Sawle, Jennifer Freeman, and Jonathan Marsden

that a customized targeted compression orthosis may offer further benefits. Therefore, to explore the role of compression in injury management, and specifically the use of external pelvic compression in the form of a customized compression orthosis, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was indicated

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Acceptability and Potential Efficacy of Single-Sex After-School Activity Programs for Overweight and At-Risk Children: The Wollongong SPORT RCT

Rachel A. Jones, Jacque Kelly, Dylan P. Cliff, Marijka Batterham, and Anthony D. Okely


Single sex after-school physical activity programs show potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and potential efficacy of single-sex after-school physical activity programs for overweight and at-risk children from low-income communities.


7-month, 2-arm parallel-group, RCT, conducted at an elementary school in a disadvantaged area in Wollongong, Australia (March-November 2010).


20 boys and 17 girls were randomized to intervention (PA) or active comparison groups (HL). Primary outcomes included implementation, acceptability, percentage body fat and BMI z-score.


The PA programs were acceptable with high implementation and enjoyment rates. At 7 months postintervention girls in the PA group displayed greater changes in percentage body fat (adjust diff. = -1.70, [95% CI -3.25, -0.14]; d = -0.83) and BMI z-score (-0.19 [-0.36, -0.03]; d= -1.00). At 7 months boys in the PA group showed greater changes in waist circumference (-3.87 cm [-7.80, 0.15]; d= -0.90) and waist circumference z-score (-0.33 [-0.64, -0.03]; d= -0.98). For both boys’ and girls’ PA groups, changes in adiposity were not maintained at 12-month follow-up.


Single-sex after-school physical activity programs are acceptable and potentially efficacious in preventing unhealthy weight gain among overweight and at-risk children. However improvements are hard to sustain once programs finish operating.

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Evaluation of Active Living Every Day in Adults With Arthritis

Leigh F. Callahan, Rebecca J. Cleveland, Jack Shreffler, Jennifer M. Hootman, Thelma J. Mielenz, Britta Schoster, Teresa Brady, and Todd Schwartz


Adults with arthritis can benefit from participation in physical activity and may be assisted by organized programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 20-week behavioral lifestyle intervention, Active Living Every Day (ALED), for improvements in primary outcomes (physical activity levels, aerobic endurance, function, symptoms).


A 20-week randomized controlled community trial was conducted in 354 adults. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 20 weeks in the intervention and wait-list control groups. The intervention group was also assessed at 6 and 12 months. Mean outcomes were determined by multilevel regression models in the intervention and control groups at follow-up points.


At 20 weeks, the intervention group significantly increased participation in physical activity, and improved aerobic endurance, and select measures of function while pain, fatigue and stiffness remained status quo. In the intervention group, significant improvements in physical activity at 20 weeks were maintained at 6 and 12 months, and stiffness decreased.


ALED appears to improve participation in physical activity, aerobic endurance, and function without exacerbating disease symptoms in adults with arthritis.

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Delivering Load-Modifying Gait Retraining Interventions via Telehealth in People With Medial Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

Nicole D’Souza, Laura Hutchison, Jane Grayson, Claire Hiller, Sarah Kobayashi, and Milena Simic

We aimed to investigate the effects of delivering 3 gait retraining interventions (toe-in, toe-out, and placebo gait) on proxy measures of medial knee load (early- and late-stance peak knee adduction moment [KAM], KAM impulse, and varus thrust) in people with knee osteoarthritis, using a hybrid model of face-to-face and telehealth-delivered sessions over 5 months. This was an originally planned 3-arm randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. However, during the 2021 COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown in Sydney, Australia, the study became a pilot randomized controlled trial with the remainder of interventions delivered via telehealth. Nine individuals with symptomatic medial knee osteoarthritis were allocated to receive either a toe-in, toe-out, or posture re-education (placebo) gait retraining intervention. Primary outcomes of early- and late-stance peak KAM, KAM impulse, and varus thrust were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Eight participants returned for their follow-up gait assessment. Participants in both active intervention groups (toe-in and toe-out) achieved foot progression angle changes at follow-up. Overall, knee biomechanics in the placebo group did not change at follow-up. It is possible to achieve biomechanical changes in individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis when delivering gait retraining interventions via a hybrid model of face-to-face and telehealth.

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Prevalence of Rotator Cuff Tears Among Older Tennis Players and Its Impact on Clinical Findings and Shoulder Function

Yohei Harada, Shin Yokoya, Yasuhiko Sumimoto, Yusuke Iwahori, Yukihiro Kajita, Masataka Deie, and Nobuo Adachi

shoulder joint is the most commonly injured site, with a prevalence of 4% to 17% among tennis players at all skill levels. 4 Among the middle-aged group, 50% of tennis players reportedly experience shoulder pain. 6 Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are common in the older population; the prevalence is

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Controlled Evaluation of an Optimization Approach to Mental Health and Sport Performance

Brad Donohue, Yulia Gavrilova, Marina Galante, Elena Gavrilova, Travis Loughran, Jesse Scott, Graig Chow, Christopher P. Plant, and Daniel N. Allen

Athletes experience unique stressors that have been indicated to compromise their mental wellness and sport performance, yet they underutilize mental health services. Indeed, very few mental health interventions for athletes have been developed to fit sport culture, and well-controlled mental health outcome research in athlete populations is warranted. In this randomized controlled trial, a sport specific optimization approach to concurrent mental health and sport performance (The Optimum Performance Program in Sports; TOPPS) was examined. Seventy-four collegiate athletes (NCAA = 42; club = 11; intramural = 21) formally assessed for mental health diagnostic severity were randomly assigned to TOPPS or campus counseling/psychological services as usual (SAU) after baseline. Dependent measures assessed general mental health, mood, mental health factors affecting sport performance in training, competition and life outside of sports, days using substances, sexual risk behaviors, happiness in relationships, relationships affecting sport performance, and contributions of relationship to sport performance. Intent to treat repeated measures analyses indicated that participants in TOPPS consistently demonstrated better outcomes than SAU up to 8-months post-randomization and for mental health/substance use measures, particularly when diagnostic criteria were most severe. Recommendations are provided in light of the results to assist sport-specific mental health intervention development and implementation within athlete populations.

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The Effect of Therapeutic Exercise Interventions on Physical and Psychosocial Outcomes in Adults Aged 80 Years and Older: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Philippa J.A. Nicolson, Vicky Duong, Esther Williamson, Sally Hopewell, and Sarah E. Lamb

from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise interventions for older adults, and clinically are less likely to be prescribed exercise than younger people ( Smith, Collier, Smith, & Mansfield, 2019 ; Witham et al., 2020 ). A recent U.K. research priority setting exercise found that health

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Dimensions of Physical Activity Are Important in Managing Anxiety in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Esther Frema Ofosu, Len de Nys, Jenni Connelly, Gemma Cathrine Ryde, and Anna C. Whittaker

, designs of included studies were restricted to intervention studies including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, feasibility, and pilot intervention studies. The inclusion of intervention studies only narrowed the scope of this review to best inform future intervention studies. Only studies