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Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Cheri Blauwet, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Bronwen Lundy, Anna Melin, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Adam S. Tenforde, Monica Klungland Torstveit and Richard Budgett

In 2014, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) published a consensus statement entitled “Beyond the Female Athlete Triad: Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S)”. The syndrome of RED-S refers to: “impaired physiological functioning caused by relative energy deficiency, and includes but is

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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero and Louise M. Burke

) in females. On the contrary, until recently, research on low EA in male athletes was lacking almost completely. Indeed, it was not until 2014, when the concept of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) was introduced to include both sexes and a broader spectrum of health and performance

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George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

The relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) syndrome was recently developed in recognition that male athletes display evidence of impaired physiological function that may be related to low energy availability ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Jockeys are unique among professional athletes in that they

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Jennifer Sygo, Alexandra M. Coates, Erik Sesbreno, Margo L. Mountjoy and Jamie F. Burr

Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a term used to describe the wide-ranging physiological, health, and performance-related effects associated with inadequate energy intake in athletes or active individuals ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). RED-S is a syndrome that can affect numerous body

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Louise M. Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L. Fahrenholtz and Anna K. Melin

theme linking numerous health problems in both female and male athletes, and described by the syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S; Mountjoy et al., 2014 , 2018 ). Evidence for the importance of EA on athlete health was derived from the controlled laboratory investigations of Professor

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Sherry Robertson and Margo Mountjoy

Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a syndrome resulting from an energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake (EI) and the energy expenditure (EE) required to support homeostasis, health, activities of daily living, growth, and sport. RED-S affects

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Bryan Holtzman, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale and Kathryn E. Ackerman

Female Athlete Triad (Triad) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) are two similar syndromes underpinned by low energy availability (LEA) that can have negative health consequences in athletes ( De Souza et al., 2014 ; Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Triad was originally described in 1993

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Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

. Although we also acknowledge our inability to assess energy availability (owing to the lack of assessments of daily energy expenditure and exercise energy expenditure), we observed that the athlete exhibited clear symptoms of the relative energy deficiency in sport syndrome (RED-S; Mountjoy et al., 2014

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

Recognition of low energy availability (LEA) in male athletes, associated with a range of negative outcomes, played a role in the framing of the Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) syndrome ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Indeed, a variety of scenarios have been investigated in which male

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

The International Association of Athletics Federations recognizes the importance of nutritional practices in optimizing an Athlete’s well-being and performance. Although Athletics encompasses a diverse range of track-and-field events with different performance determinants, there are common goals around nutritional support for adaptation to training, optimal performance for key events, and reducing the risk of injury and illness. Periodized guidelines can be provided for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food and fluids to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competition. Some Athletes are at risk of relative energy deficiency in sport arising from a mismatch between energy intake and exercise energy expenditure. Competition nutrition strategies may involve pre-event, within-event, and between-event eating to address requirements for carbohydrate and fluid replacement. Although a “food first” policy should underpin an Athlete’s nutrition plan, there may be occasions for the judicious use of medical supplements to address nutrient deficiencies or sports foods that help the athlete to meet nutritional goals when it is impractical to eat food. Evidence-based supplements include caffeine, bicarbonate, beta-alanine, nitrate, and creatine; however, their value is specific to the characteristics of the event. Special considerations are needed for travel, challenging environments (e.g., heat and altitude); special populations (e.g., females, young and masters athletes); and restricted dietary choice (e.g., vegetarian). Ideally, each Athlete should develop a personalized, periodized, and practical nutrition plan via collaboration with their coach and accredited sports nutrition experts, to optimize their performance.