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10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0149 ijsnem.2018-0149 CONSENSUS STATEMENT International Olympic Committee (IOC) Consensus Statement on Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S): 2018 Update Margo Mountjoy * Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen * Louise Burke * Kathryn E. Ackerman * Cheri Blauwet * Naama

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Jennifer Hamer, Ben Desbrow, and Chris Irwin

in Sport (RED-S), particularly in adolescent female endurance athletes ( Holtzman, Tenforde, Parziale, & Ackerman, 2019 ; Logue et al., 2020 ). RED-S is characterized by an athlete’s energy intake not matching their total exercise expenditure, resulting in a state of low energy availability (LEA

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Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Cheri Blauwet, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Bronwen Lundy, Anna Melin, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Adam S. Tenforde, Monica Klungland Torstveit, and Richard Budgett

In 2014, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) published a consensus statement entitled “Beyond the Female Athlete Triad: Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S)”. The syndrome of RED-S refers to: “impaired physiological functioning caused by relative energy deficiency, and includes but is

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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero, and Louise M. Burke

) in females. On the contrary, until recently, research on low EA in male athletes was lacking almost completely. Indeed, it was not until 2014, when the concept of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) was introduced to include both sexes and a broader spectrum of health and performance

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George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

The relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) syndrome was recently developed in recognition that male athletes display evidence of impaired physiological function that may be related to low energy availability ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Jockeys are unique among professional athletes in that they

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Jennifer Sygo, Alexandra M. Coates, Erik Sesbreno, Margo L. Mountjoy, and Jamie F. Burr

Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a term used to describe the wide-ranging physiological, health, and performance-related effects associated with inadequate energy intake in athletes or active individuals ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). RED-S is a syndrome that can affect numerous body

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Louise M. Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L. Fahrenholtz, and Anna K. Melin

theme linking numerous health problems in both female and male athletes, and described by the syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S; Mountjoy et al., 2014 , 2018 ). Evidence for the importance of EA on athlete health was derived from the controlled laboratory investigations of Professor

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Johanna K. Ihalainen, Oona Kettunen, Kerry McGawley, Guro Strøm Solli, Anthony C. Hackney, Antti A. Mero, and Heikki Kyröläinen

– 352 . PubMed ID: 17465605 doi: 10.2165/00007256-200737040-00019 17465605 11. Mountjoy M , Sundgot-Borgen JK , Burke LM , et al . IOC consensus statement on relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S): 2018 update . Br J Sports Med . 2018 ; 52 ( 11 ): 687 – 697 . PubMed ID: 29773536 doi

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Sherry Robertson and Margo Mountjoy

Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a syndrome resulting from an energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake (EI) and the energy expenditure (EE) required to support homeostasis, health, activities of daily living, growth, and sport. RED-S affects

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Bryan Holtzman, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, and Kathryn E. Ackerman

Female Athlete Triad (Triad) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) are two similar syndromes underpinned by low energy availability (LEA) that can have negative health consequences in athletes ( De Souza et al., 2014 ; Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Triad was originally described in 1993