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Roxane Coche and Benjamin J. Lynn

, North Carolina, and the graphics and replay operators were at the Fox Network Center in Los Angeles. In 1 min, Joy essentially described the REMote Integration (REMI) production model to his audience. This scene is early evidence of what we argue in this essay: the COVID-19 pandemic will change the

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Rémi Radel, Philippe Sarrazin, and Luc Pelletier

The aim of this study was to examine whether motivational orientations for a new motor task could be triggered by unconscious determinants. Participants were primed with subliminal words depicting an autonomous, a neutral, or a controlled motivation during an initial unrelated task, followed by working on an unknown motor task. Behavioral, physiological, and self-reported indicators of motivation for this task were assessed. Overall, results indicated a significant impact of the priming condition on all these indicators; whereas the priming of autonomous motivation led to positive outcomes, the priming of controlled motivation led to negatives outcomes when compared with the neutral condition. Implications regarding the priming of unconscious determinants of motivation for sport and exercise are discussed.

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Enzo Hollville, Vincent Le Croller, Yoshihiro Hirasawa, Rémi Husson, Giuseppe Rabita, and Franck Brocherie

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of multiple sets of repeated-sprint-ability (RSA)-induced fatigue on subsequent passing-skill performance in field hockey players. Methods: A total of 10 elite U-21 (under-21) male field hockey players performed 5 sets of a combination of RSA test (6 × 20 m, 20 s of passive recovery) followed by a 1-min passing-skill test (passing reception with subsequent passes at a predesigned target). Data on fastest sprint time and cumulated sprint time for RSA test; total number of balls played, targeted, and passing accuracy (number of balls targeted/total number of balls played) for passing-skill test; heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE)  were collected throughout the protocol. Results: RSA performance was significantly impaired from set 1 to set 5 (fastest sprint time +4.1%, P < .001; cumulated sprint time +2.3%, P < .01). For a similar average number of balls played (12.8 [1.4]) during each set, number of balls targeted (−1.7%, P < .05) and passing accuracy (−3.1%, P < .05) decreased up to the third set before reimproving over the last 2 sets. Psychophysiological responses (HR, BLa, and RPE) progressively increased (P < .05) toward protocol cessation. The decrease in passing accuracy with increasing RSA cumulated sprint time was fitted to a 2nd-order polynomial function (r 2 = .94, P < .05). Conclusion: Multiple-set RSA-induced fatigue was accompanied by passing-skill adjustment variation, suggesting a complex interaction between physiological and psychological/cognitive function to preserve passing skill under fatigued condition.

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Dirk Aerenhouts, Jelle Van Cauwenberg, Jacques Remi Poortmans, Ronald Hauspie, and Peter Clarys

This study aimed to estimate nitrogen balance and protein requirements in adolescent sprint athletes as a function of growth rate and physical development. Sixty adolescent sprint athletes were followed up biannually over a 2-yr period. Individual growth curves and age at peak height velocity were determined. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was estimated based on anthropometric measurements and fat mass was estimated by underwater densitometry. Seven-day diet and physical activity diaries were completed to estimate energy balance and protein intake. Nitrogen analysis of 24-hr urine samples collected on 1 weekday and 1 weekend day allowed calculation of nitrogen balance. Body height, weight, and SMM increased throughout the study period in both genders. Mean protein intakes were between 1.4 and 1.6 g kg−1 day−1 in both genders. A protein intake of 1.46 g kg−1 day−1 in girls and 1.35 g kg−1 day−1 in boys was needed to yield a positive nitrogen balance. This did not differ between participants during and after their growth spurt. None of the growth parameters was significantly related to nitrogen balance. It can be concluded that a mean protein intake around 1.5 g kg−1 day−1 was sufficient to stay in a positive nitrogen balance, even during periods of peak growth. Therefore, protein intake should not be enhanced in peak periods of linear or muscular growth.

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Aïna Chalabaev, Jeanick Brisswalter, Rémi Radel, Stephen A. Coombes, Christopher Easthope, and Corentin Clément-Guillotin

Previous evidence shows that stereotype threat impairs complex motor skills through increased conscious monitoring of task performance. Given that one-step motor skills may not be susceptible to these processes, we examined whether performance on a simple strength task may be reduced under stereotype threat. Forty females and males performed maximum voluntary contractions under stereotypical or nullified-stereotype conditions. Results showed that the velocity of force production within the first milliseconds of the contraction decreased in females when the negative stereotype was induced, whereas maximal force did not change. In males, the stereotype induction only increased maximal force. These findings suggest that stereotype threat may impair motor skills in the absence of explicit monitoring processes, by influencing the planning stage of force production.

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Anthony Couderc, Claire Thomas, Mathieu Lacome, Julien Piscione, Julien Robineau, Rémi Delfour-Peyrethon, Rachel Borne, and Christine Hanon

Purpose:

To investigate the running demands and associated metabolic perturbations during an official rugby sevens tournament.

Methods:

Twelve elite players participated in 7 matches wearing GPS units. Maximal sprinting speed (MSS) and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) were measured. High-intensity threshold was individualized relative to MAS (>100% of MAS), and very-high-intensity distance was reported relative to both MAS and MSS. Blood samples were taken at rest and after each match.

Results:

Comparison of prematch and postmatch samples revealed significant (P < .01) changes in pH (7.41–7.25), bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3]) (24.8–13.6 mmol/L), and lactate concentration ([La]) (2.4–11.9 mmol/L). Mean relative total distance covered was 91 ± 13 m/min with ~17 m/min at high-intensity. Player status (whole-match or interchanged players), match time, and total distance covered had no significant impact on metabolic indices. Relative distance covered at high intensity was negatively correlated with pH and [HCO3] (r = .44 and r = .42, respectively; P < .01) and positively correlated with [La] (r = .36; P < .01). Total distance covered and distance covered at very high intensity during the 1-min peak activity in the last 3 min of play were correlated with [La] (r = .39 and r = .39, respectively; P < .01).

Conclusions:

Significant alterations in blood-metabolite indices from prematch to postmatch sampling suggest that players were required to tolerate a substantial level of acidosis related to metabolite accumulation. In addition, the ability to produce energy via the glycolytic energy pathway seems to be a major determinant in match-related running performance.

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Theo Ouvrard, Alain Groslambert, Gilles Ravier, Sidney Grosprêtre, Philippe Gimenez, and Frederic Grappe

. Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the participating cyclists for their cooperation and Rémi Gribaudo and the Lapierre Company for the free loan of the electrically assisted bicycle. This research was not supported by external funding. The authors declare no conflict of interest. The results of this study

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André Gounot

worthwhile to criticize the ‘person or persons who’ permitted the crowd to line the trackside, i.e. , the National Sports Commission, headed by Brigadier General Roberto Fernández Miranda, who is President Batista’s brother-in-law. 103 » Comble d’adversité pour le pouvoir: remis en liberté après 26 heures

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Éric Claverie, Julien Krier, and Jean-François Loudcher

fraternel non perverti par la compétition. Auguste Listello séduit le monde de l’USEP par cette offre pragmatique, au point que son ouvrage 106 est remis gratuitement à toutes les écoles, 107 tant « nous devons faire connaitre ce travail magistral 108 ». Ainsi, il est plus simple, au travers de ce que

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Denis Jallat

’autre part, le haut-niveau des Anglais sur l’eau leur permet d’imposer leurs règles aux autres nations régatières dont la France. 56 Des réactions ne tardent pas à être exprimées pour couper court à cet ethos. En France, le yachting anglais est progressivement remis en cause par le « transfert » de