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Deryn Bath, Louise A. Turner, Andrew N. Bosch, Ross Tucker, Estelle V. Lambert, Kevin G. Thompson, and Alan St. Clair Gibson


The aim of this study was to examine performance, pacing strategy and perception of effort during a 5 km time trial while running with or without the presence of another athlete.


Eleven nonelite male athletes participated in five 5 km time trials: two self-paced, maximal effort trials performed at the start and end of the study, and three trials performed in the presence of a second runner. In the three trials, the second runner ran either in front of the subject, behind the subject, or next to the subject. Performance times, heart rate, RPE, and a subjective assessment of the effect of the second runner on the athlete’s performance were recorded during each of the trials.


There was no significant difference in performance times, heart rate or RPE between any of the five trials. Running speed declined from the 1st to the 4th kilometer and then increased for the last kilometer in all five trials. Following the completion of all trials, 9 of the 11 subjects perceived it to be easier to complete the 5 km time trial with another runner in comparison with running alone.


While the athletes perceived their performance to be improved by the presence of another runner, their pacing strategy, running speed, heart rate and RPE were not significantly altered. These findings indicate that an athlete’s subconscious pacing strategy is robust and is not altered by the presence of another runner.

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Blaine E. Arney, Reese Glover, Andrea Fusco, Cristina Cortis, Jos J. de Koning, Teun van Erp, Salvador Jaime, Richard P. Mikat, John P. Porcari, and Carl Foster

to quantify internal TL using a modification of the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method developed by Borg. 6 This method is known as the session RPE (sRPE). The sRPE is derived by multiplying the overall RPE obtained at the end of a training session, using the Borg category-ratio 10 scale

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Ric Lovell, Sam Halley, Jason Siegler, Tony Wignell, Aaron J. Coutts, and Tim Massard

Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) represent an individual’s psychobiological response to an activity stimulus. These subjective evaluations of exertion are integrated from signals originating in working muscles and joints, cardiorespiratory, and central nervous systems. 1 In applied sports

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Aviv Emanuel, Isaac Isur Rozen Smukas, and Israel Halperin

upon when monitoring and prescribing resistance training programs. Perceived effort can be defined in various ways, and measured using numerous rating of perceived effort (RPE) scales. Broadly speaking, RPE scales are meant to capture the extent of effort/resources invested in a given task relative to

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Shaun J. McLaren, Jonathan M. Taylor, Tom W. Macpherson, Iain R. Spears, and Matthew Weston

activity, but is often limited due to difficulties in controlling external load under standardized conditions in the applied setting. 1 Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) are a commonly used measure of internal load in soccer. 2 This is likely due to strong associations with multiple indicators of

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Luka Svilar, Julen Castellano, Igor Jukic, and David Casamichana

variables derived from the inertial sensors/accelerometers (only via microtechnology) were used. 2 All the variables were monitored using 100 Hz frequency. This kind of technology was previously confirmed as both valid and reliable. 14 The iTL was monitored via rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the

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Jordan L. Fox, Cody J. O’Grady, and Aaron T. Scanlan

objective measures of exercise intensity. 3 The accuracy of sRPE is, however, contingent on a number of factors such as use of validated scales, collecting ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) from each player in the absence of peers, and appropriate familiarization processes. 4 Further to these points, RPE

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Carl Foster, Daniel Boullosa, Michael McGuigan, Andrea Fusco, Cristina Cortis, Blaine E. Arney, Bo Orton, Christopher Dodge, Salvador Jaime, Kim Radtke, Teun van Erp, Jos J. de Koning, Daniel Bok, Jose A. Rodriguez-Marroyo, and John P. Porcari

has recently been reviewed relative to its inherent validity and value for training monitoring. 2 , 3 Historical Background The sRPE method is an adaptation of the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method pioneered by Sweden Gunnar Borg. 4 – 6 The Borg method began as an attempt to get beyond the HR

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Steven H. Doeven, Michel S. Brink, Barbara C.H. Huijgen, Johan de Jong, and Koen A.P.M. Lemmink

Research Center Questionnaire on Health Problems; s-RPE, session rating of perceived exertion; TS, training session; TQR, total quality of recovery; WB, well-being. Session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) was obtained individually 30 min after each training session or match. Intensity was rated on a 6

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James J. Malone, Arne Jaspers, Werner Helsen, Brenda Merks, Wouter G.P. Frencken, and Michel S. Brink

total PlayerLoad™ value divided by the total session duration in minutes. The session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) was determined using the CR10 scale of Foster et al. 11 The GKs session-RPE was collected 30-minute postsession and multiplied by the session duration to calculate the