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Deryn Bath, Louise A. Turner, Andrew N. Bosch, Ross Tucker, Estelle V. Lambert, Kevin G. Thompson and Alan St. Clair Gibson

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to examine performance, pacing strategy and perception of effort during a 5 km time trial while running with or without the presence of another athlete.

Methods:

Eleven nonelite male athletes participated in five 5 km time trials: two self-paced, maximal effort trials performed at the start and end of the study, and three trials performed in the presence of a second runner. In the three trials, the second runner ran either in front of the subject, behind the subject, or next to the subject. Performance times, heart rate, RPE, and a subjective assessment of the effect of the second runner on the athlete’s performance were recorded during each of the trials.

Results:

There was no significant difference in performance times, heart rate or RPE between any of the five trials. Running speed declined from the 1st to the 4th kilometer and then increased for the last kilometer in all five trials. Following the completion of all trials, 9 of the 11 subjects perceived it to be easier to complete the 5 km time trial with another runner in comparison with running alone.

Conclusions:

While the athletes perceived their performance to be improved by the presence of another runner, their pacing strategy, running speed, heart rate and RPE were not significantly altered. These findings indicate that an athlete’s subconscious pacing strategy is robust and is not altered by the presence of another runner.

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Blaine E. Arney, Reese Glover, Andrea Fusco, Cristina Cortis, Jos J. de Koning, Teun van Erp, Salvador Jaime, Richard P. Mikat, John P. Porcari and Carl Foster

to quantify internal TL using a modification of the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method developed by Borg. 6 This method is known as the session RPE (sRPE). The sRPE is derived by multiplying the overall RPE obtained at the end of a training session, using the Borg category-ratio 10 scale

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Andrea Fusco, Christine Knutson, Charles King, Richard P. Mikat, John P. Porcari, Cristina Cortis and Carl Foster

Purpose:

Although the Session RPE (sRPE) is primarily a marker of internal training load (TL), it may be sensitive to external TL determining factors such as duration and volume. Thus, sRPE could provide further information on accumulated fatigue not available from markers of internal TL. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate sRPE during heavy training bouts at relatively constant intensity.

Methods:

Eleven university swimmers performed a high-volume training session consisting of 4x10x100-yard (4x10x91.4-m). Repetition lap time and heart rate (HR) were measured for each repetition and averaged for each set. Blood lactate concentration ([HLa]) was measured after each set. At the end of each set, a 10-minute rest period was allowed, during which sRPE values were obtained, as if the training bout had ended.

Results:

There were no differences between sets for lap time (p=.096), HR (p=.717) and [HLa] (p=.466), suggesting that the subjects were working at the same external and internal intensity. There was an increase (p=.0002) in sRPE between sets (first: 4±1.2; second: 5±1.3; third: 7±1.3; fourth: 8±1.5), suggesting that even when maintaining the same intensity, the perception of the entire workload increased with duration.

Conclusions:

Increases in duration, although performed with a consistent internal and external intensity, influences sRPE. These findings support the concept that sRPE may provide additional information on accumulated fatigue not available from other markers of TL.

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Luka Svilar, Julen Castellano, Igor Jukic and David Casamichana

variables derived from the inertial sensors/accelerometers (only via microtechnology) were used. 2 All the variables were monitored using 100 Hz frequency. This kind of technology was previously confirmed as both valid and reliable. 14 The iTL was monitored via rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the

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James J. Malone, Arne Jaspers, Werner Helsen, Brenda Merks, Wouter G.P. Frencken and Michel S. Brink

total PlayerLoad™ value divided by the total session duration in minutes. The session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) was determined using the CR10 scale of Foster et al. 11 The GKs session-RPE was collected 30-minute postsession and multiplied by the session duration to calculate the

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Jason J. Rutkowski, Robert J. Robertson, Wayland D. Tseh, Jennifer L. Caputo, Daniel J. Keefer, Kristin M. Sutika and Donald W. Morgan

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether either the differentiated ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for the legs (RPE-L) or chest (RPE-C) were higher than the overall body RPE (RPE-O) in children performing treadmill walking. A differentiated RPE that was higher than the RPE-O was considered the dominant perceptual signal. Thirty-one 10-year-old participants (16 boys, 15 girls) performed six separate 5-min bouts of level treadmill walking at different speeds. During each bout of exercise, RPEs were recorded using the modified Children’s OMNI Scale. Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and ventilation (VE) were measured during Minutes 4 and 5 at each walking speed. VO2, HR, and VE increased as walking speed increased, as did perceived exertion. No differences were observed among RPE-O, RPE-L, and RPE-C at any speed. In addition, boys and girls exhibited similar responses for each perceptual and physiological variable. In conclusion, a dominant differentiated perceptual rating was not found at slow-to-moderate treadmill walking speeds for either boys or girls. Neither the respiratory–metabolic nor peripheral ratings of perceived exertion appeared to dominate the whole-body sensory-integration process in this sample.

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Robert H. Mann, Craig A. Williams, Bryan C. Clift and Alan R. Barker

. Consequently, the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), an athlete’s subjective RPE multiplied by session duration (in minutes), has been established as a simple and valid measure of ITL. 7 Based on the formative research of Foster et al, 8 sRPE is typically reported 30 minutes following session

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Jérémy B. J. Coquart, Yancy Dufour, Alain Groslambert, Régis Matran and Murielle Garcin

The purpose was to study the relationships between psychological factors and perceptually-based values (Ratings of Perceived Exertion: RPE and Estimated Time Limit: ETL). The researchers obtained the scores of several psychological factors (anxiety, extraversion-introversion, neuroticism-stability, self-esteem, motivation, psychological resistance and endurance, desire for success, social desirability, dynamism, competitiveness, activity control, risk-taking, emotional control, aggressiveness, sociability, cooperation, acceptance of a judgment, and leadership) among 23 cyclists. The cyclists performed a graded exercise test in which the researchers collected RPE and ETL at 150, 200, 250 and 300W. Correlations between RPE/ETL and psychological factors were examined. RPE was correlated with leadership, psychological resistance and endurance. ETL was significantly correlated with psychological endurance. These results suggest a link between psychological factors, effort perception, and the time limits predicted by teleoanticipation. These relationships varied according to intensity.

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Monoem Haddad, Anis Chaouachi, Carlo Castagna, Del P. Wong, David G. Behm and Karim Chamari

Purpose:

The session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a practical and non-invasive method that allows a quantification of the internal training load (TL) in individual and team sports, but no study has investigated its construct validity in martial arts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the convergent validity between the session-RPE method and two objective HR-based methods for quantifying the similar TL during a high-TL camp in young Taekwondo (TKD) athletes.

Methods:

Ten young TKD athletes (mean ± SD: age, 13.1 ± 2.4 y; body mass, 46.1 ± 12.7 kg; height, 1.53 ± 0.15 m; maximum heart rate (HRmax), 201.0 ± 8.2 bpm) participated in this study. During the training period, subjects performed 35 TKD training sessions, including two formal competitions during which RPE and HR were recorded and analyzed (308 individual training sessions). Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the convergent validity between session-RPE method and the two commonly used HR-based methods for assessing TL in a variety of training modes.

Results:

Significant relationships were found between individual session-RPE and all the HR-based TLs (r values from 0.55 to 0.90; P < .001). Significant correlations were observed in all mode of exercises practiced in TKD.

Conclusions:

This study shows that session-RPE can be considered as a valid method to assess TL in TKD.

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Corrado Lupo, Laura Capranica and Antonio Tessitore

Context:

The assessment of internal training load (ITL) using the session rating of perceived exertion (session RPE) has been demonstrated to provide valuable information, also in team sports. Nevertheless, no studies have investigated the use of this method during youth water polo training.

Purpose:

To evaluate youth water polo training, showing the corresponding level of reliability of the session-RPE method.

Methods:

Thirteen male youth water polo players (age 15.6 ± 0.5 y, height 1.80 ± 0.06 m, body mass 72.7 ± 7.8 kg) were monitored during 8 training sessions (80 individual training sessions) over 10 d. The Edwards summated heart-rate-zone method was used as a reference measure of ITL; the session-RPE rating was obtained using CR-10 scale modified by Foster. The Pearson product–moment was applied to regress the Edwards heart-rate-zone method against CR-10 session RPE for each training session and individual data.

Results:

Analyses reported overall high (r = .88, R 2 = .78) and significant (P < .001) correlations between the Edwards heart-rate and session-RPE methods. Significant correlations were also shown for each training session (r range .69–.92, R 2 range .48–.85, P < .05) and individual data (r range .76–.98, R 2 range .58–.97, P < .05).

Discussion:

The results confirmed that the session-RPE method as an easy and reliable tool to evaluate ITL in youth water polo, allowing coaches to efficiently monitor their training plans.