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Effects of a 6-Week Repeated-Sprint Training With Voluntary Hypoventilation at Low and High Lung Volume on Repeated-Sprint Ability in Female Soccer Players

Mounir Ait Ali Braham, Youva Ouchen, and Xavier Woorons

past 10 years, it has been shown that one of the best ways to improve RSA was to perform a repeated-sprint training under hypoxic conditions (RSH). Most of the studies dealing with this approach have reported larger performance gains than the same training performed in normoxic conditions. 4 , 5

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Repeated-Sprint Training in Hypoxia Induced by Voluntary Hypoventilation in Swimming

Laurent Trincat, Xavier Woorons, and Grégoire P. Millet


Repeated-sprint training in hypoxia (RSH) has been shown as an efficient method for improving repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in team-sport players but has not been investigated in swimming. We assessed whether RSH with arterial desaturation induced by voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume (VHL) could improve RSA to a greater extent than the same training performed under normal breathing (NB) conditions.


Sixteen competitive swimmers completed 6 sessions of repeated sprints (2 sets of 16 × 15 m with 30 s send-off) either with VHL (RSH-VHL, n = 8) or with NB (RSN, n = 8). Before and after training, performance was evaluated through an RSA test (25-m all-out sprints with 35 s send-off) until exhaustion.


From before to after training, the number of sprints was significantly increased in RSH-VHL (7.1 ± 2.1 vs 9.6 ± 2.5; P < .01) but not in RSN (8.0 ± 3.1 vs 8.7 ± 3.7; P = .38). Maximal blood lactate concentration ([La]max) was higher after than before in RSH-VHL (11.5 ± 3.9 vs 7.9 ± 3.7 mmol/L; P = .04) but was unchanged in RSN (10.2 ± 2.0 vs 9.0 ± 3.5 mmol/L; P = .34). There was a strong correlation between the increases in the number of sprints and in [La]max in RSH-VHL only (R = .93, P < .01).


RSH-VHL improved RSA in swimming, probably through enhanced anaerobic glycolysis. This innovative method allows inducing benefits normally associated with hypoxia during swim training in normoxia.

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Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training in Hypoxia on Taekwondo Performance

Tomás Chacón Torrealba, Jaime Aranda Araya, Nicolas Benoit, and Louise Deldicque

might be hypothesized that the lack of effect was due to the more technical feature of the exercises. However, it should be mentioned that similarly to the present study, others found no additional effect of repeated sprint in hypoxia (RSH) over repeated sprint in NOR on repeated-sprint ability at sea

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Acute Responses to Repeated-Sprint Training in Hypoxia Combined With Whole-Body Cryotherapy: A Preliminary Study

Thibaud Mihailovic, Alain Groslambert, Romain Bouzigon, Simon Feaud, Grégoire P. Millet, and Philippe Gimenez

hypoxia training methods, such as repeated sprint training in hypoxia (RSH), have been used for endurance sports, 3 but also activities for which the ability to repeat efforts is an important factor in performance, as in the case of team sports 4 or racket sports. 5 RSH is defined as the repetition of

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Effects of 2 Different Protocols of Repeated-Sprint Training in Hypoxia in Elite Female Rugby Sevens Players During an Altitude Training Camp

Janne Bouten, Maxime Brick, Antoine Saboua, Jean-Loup Hadjadj, Julien Piscione, Chloé Margot, Gregory Doucende, Nicolas Bourrel, Grégoire P. Millet, and Franck Brocherie

performance 6 , 7 ; all physical qualities that are crucial in rugby sevens. 5 Recently, the so-called repeated-sprint training in hypoxia (RSH), 8 , 9 which consists of adding hypoxic stress during repeated high-intensity efforts, enhanced both upper- and lower-body performance to a greater extent than

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Time Decay in the Performance Benefits From Repeated-Sprint Training in Hypoxia in World-Class Short-Track Speed Skaters

Simon Deguire, François Billaut, and François Bieuzen

-sprint training in hypoxia (RSH), the combination of maximal intensity and limited oxygen supply likely reduces the O 2 availability-to-demand ratio, which induces a compensatory vasodilation response to increase O 2 delivery to hypoxic tissues. 11 Therefore, it has been argued that in such metabolic

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Repeated-Sprint Training in Hypoxia in International Rugby Union Players

Adam Beard, John Ashby, Ryan Chambers, Franck Brocherie, and Grégoire P. Millet

This may have good carryover to rugby union, which has a high number of repeated-sprint requirements. 2 Although RSA training is well accepted to improve this quality, 5 utilizing RSA in hypoxic conditions (the so-called “repeated-sprint training in hypoxia,” [RSH]) has shown superior results when

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Acute Responses to On-Court Repeated-Sprint Training Performed With Blood Flow Restriction Versus Systemic Hypoxia in Elite Badminton Athletes

Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Manuela González, Zigor Montalvo, and Grégoire P. Millet

-sprint test. 2 For this reason, RS is routinely included in the training program of intermittent sports. Although RS sessions are most frequently performed in normoxia (RSN), its completion in systemic hypoxia (RSH) can provide additional benefits, as confirmed by a recent meta-analysis. 3 Although the

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Heat Added to Repeated-Sprint Training in Hypoxia Does Not Affect Cycling Performance

Myles C. Dennis, Paul S.R. Goods, Martyn J. Binnie, Olivier Girard, Karen E. Wallman, Brian T. Dawson, and Peter Peeling

mechanical power output. Determining this equilibrium is important when aiming to maximize training outcomes. Repeated-sprint training in hypoxia (RSH) involves the repetition of “all-out” efforts of short (≤30 s) duration interspersed with brief recoveries in oxygen (O 2 )-deprived conditions. 3 This

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No Improved Performance With Repeated-Sprint Training in Hypoxia Versus Normoxia: A Double-Blind and Crossover Study

David Montero and Carsten Lundby


Few recent studies indicate that short-term repeated-sprint (RS) training in hypoxia (RSH) improves RS performance compared with identical training under normoxic conditions (RSN) in endurance-trained subjects.


To determine the effects of RSH against RSN on RS performance under normoxic and moderate hypoxic conditions, using a randomized, doubleblind, crossover experimental design.


Fifteen endurance-trained male subjects (age 25 ± 4 y) performed 4 wk of RS training (3 sessions/wk) in normobaric hypoxia (RSH, FiO2 = 13.8%) and normoxia (RSN, FiO2 = 20.9%) in a crossover manner. Before and after completion of training, RS tests were performed on a cycle ergometer with no prior exercise (RSNE), after an incremental exercise test (RSIE), and after a time-trial test (RSTT) in normoxia and hypoxia.


Peak power outputs at the incremental exercise test and time-trial performance were unaltered by RSH in normoxia and hypoxia. RS performance was generally enhanced by RSH, as well as RSN, but there were no additional effects of RSH over RSN on peak and mean sprint power output and the number of repeated sprints performed in the RSNE, RSIE, and RSTT trials under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.


The present double-blind crossover study indicates that RSH does not improve RS performance compared with RSN in normoxic and hypoxic conditions in endurance-trained subjects. Therefore, caution should be exercised when proposing RSH as an advantageous method to improve exercise performance.