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Karin I. Proper, Ester Cerin and Neville Owen

Background:

There is an inverse relationship between individual socio-economic status (SES) and amount of occupational physical activity. The role of the socio-economic environment is, however, less clear. This study examined the independent influences of neighborhood and individual SES on absolute and relative amount of occupational physical activity. It also examined the moderating effects of neighborhood SES on the relationship between individual SES and occupational physical activity.

Methods:

Employees (n = 1236) resident in high or low SES neighborhoods were assessed on socio-demographic factors, including educational attainment and household income, and physical activity.

Results:

Neighborhood SES and individual SES were independently inversely related to absolute and relative amount of occupational physical activity. Significant interactions between neighborhood SES and level of educational attainment in the contribution of total and vigorous occupational physical activity to total physical activity were found.

Conclusions:

Neighborhood SES can function as a moderator in the relationship between individual SES and occupational physical activity.

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Se-Hyuk Park and Yong-Man Kim

This paper describes the development of a 20-item instrument for assessing participants' attitudinal loyalty in the contexts of recreational sport activities. Out of 211 participants, 189 provided usable responses to the questionnaire regarding demographics, attitudes toward recreational sport participation, and intention to renew membership. An analysis revealed three factors that formed the subscales for attitudinal loyalty construct: normative, affective, and investment loyalty. All scales had coefficient alpha values of .70 or above. Thus, the analyses confirmed the validity and the reliability of the questionnaire after translation of the items from English into Korean and their adaptation to recreational sport contexts. The matrix of correlations among attitudinal loyalty dimensions indicates that one dimension cannot fully predict another, and that all dimensions must be simultaneously taken into account in describing the attitudinal loyalty construct. The multifaceted nature of attitudinal loyalty construct may prove useful for segmenting the recreational sport market.

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Jwa-jun Kim, So-youn Ann and Se-yeon Park

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of visual trace on shoulder muscle activation during diagonal pattern of exercises. Sixteen healthy male participants volunteered to participate.

Design:

Repeated-measure design.

Setting:

Laboratory setting.

Participants:

Sixteen physically active male participants volunteered to participate.

Intervention:

Five muscles of the shoulder were investigated during standing performance of diagonal shoulder exercises with and without visual trace. Two patterns of the diagonal exercises were used: diagonal 1 flexion (D1F) and diagonal 2 fexion (D2F). Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used, with factors being the presence of visual trace and exercise variations.

Main Outcome Measure:

Electromyography (EMG).

Results:

The average muscle activity values of the lower trapezius and anterior deltoid were higher with the D2F compared with the D1F (P < .05). The visual trace effect was observed within the serratus anterior, with values significantly greater in exercise with visual trace (P < .05). There was a significant increase of the lower trapezius during the exercise with the visual trace condition compared with the exercise without visual trace, which was only observed during D2F (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Present results suggest that the D2F exercise pattern is effective for activating lower trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles. The visual trace condition has the additional advantage of activating the scapulothoracic muscle activities depending on the specific pattern of diagonal shoulder exercise.

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Se-yeon Park and Won-gyu Yoo

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to measure muscle activation during ascending and descending phases of the push-up exercise on both stable and unstable support surfaces.

Participants:

Fourteen asymptomatic male amateur badminton players. During push-up exercises on stable and unstable bases, muscle activation measurements were collected with phase divisions (ascending and descending phase).

Methods:

Electromyography (EMG) was utilized to measure activation of the upper trapezius (UT) and lower trapezius (LT), middle serratus anterior (MSA) and lower serratus anterior (LSA), pectoralis major (PM), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles.

Results:

An unstable support surface produced significantly greater activation of the UT, LT, LSA, and PM muscles than a stable support surface (p < 0.05). The MSA, LSA, TB, and PM muscles demonstrated greater activation during the ascending phase than the descending phase of the push-up exercise (p < 0.05).

Conclusions:

The unstable support surface appeared to produce relatively greater activation of the LSA than that of the MSA. The descending phase of the push-up did not demonstrate a higher level of activation for any of the muscles tested.

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S.E. Barber, A. Forster and K.M. Birch

Background:

Physical activity is important for maintaining independence and quality of life in older people living in care homes. Little is known about patterns of physical activity or sedentary behavior in this population.

Methods:

Thirty-three care home residents (82.6 ± 9.2 years) wore an ActiGraph GTX3 accelerometer for seven days, which provided minutes of sedentary behavior and low, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants undertook the Mini-Mental State Examination and care staff reported activities of daily living (Barthel index) and functional ambulation classification (FAC) for each participant.

Results:

Participants spent on average 79% of their day sedentary, 14% in low, 6% in light, and 1% in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Activity levels did not significantly differ between days or hours of the day (P > .05).

Conclusion:

Levels of physical activity were very low and time being sedentary was high. This study can inform physical activity and sedentary behavior interventions for care homes’ residents.

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Diana Marina Camargo, Paula Camila Ramírez, Vanesa Quiroga, Paola Ríos, Rogério César Férmino and Olga L. Sarmiento

innovative management of public open spaces like parks. 10 , 11 The associations between socioeconomic status (SES) of the neighborhoods and PA of their inhabitants are scarce. In 2012, Cohen et al 12 found that park programming activities, more than safety in the neighborhoods or green areas, contribute to

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Tom Perks

As is well known among sport sociologists, opportunities for sport participation are not equal across different socio-economic status (SES) groups, with research showing that adults with high SES participate in sport more than those with low SES ( Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Research Institute

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Sarah A. Amin, Paula J. Duquesnay, Catherine M. Wright, Kenneth Chui, Christina D. Economos and Jennifer M. Sacheck

-term behaviors ( 26 , 37 , 44 ). Socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in PA ( 6 , 40 ) underscore the need to disentangle the array of factors that affect children’s activity levels. Differences in PAC by SES may be one of the pathways that drive children’s PA potentially through disparities in the complex PA