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Nicole J. Chimera, Monica R. Lininger, Bethany Hudson, Christopher Kendall, Lindsay Plucknette, Timothy Szalkowski and Meghan Warren

is via short message service (SMS), or text messaging. This method may pave the way for collecting injury data in a more inclusive manner. Self-report of acute sports injury may be a convenient way to track acute injuries while avoiding the challenges of accessing sensitive ED medical records. Recent

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Nicole J. Chimera, Monica R. Lininger and Meghan Warren

Therefore, simpler methods of reporting injuries in recreational activities may allow a more accurate and precise incidence of injury in these popular endeavors. A newer method for injury reporting is via short message service (SMS) or text messaging; this allows individuals to report injuries, and

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Luc G. Pelletier, Kim M. Tuson, Michelle S. Fortier, Robert J. Vallerand, Nathalie M. Briére and Marc R. Blais

A new measure of motivation toward sport has been developed in French, namely the Echelle de Motivation vis-à-vis les Sports. Two studies were conducted to translate and validate this new measure in English. The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) consists of seven subscales that measure three types of Intrinsic Motivation (IM; IM to Know, IM to Accomplish Things, and IM to Experience Stimulation), three forms of regulation for Extrinsic Motivation (Identified, Introjected, and External), and Amotivation. The first study confirmed the factor structure of the scale and revealed a satisfactory level of internal consistency. Correlations among the subscales revealed a simplex pattern confirming the self-determination continuum and the construct validity of the scale. Gender differences were similar to those obtained with the French-Canadian version. The more self-determined forms of motivation were associated with more positive responses on related consequences. In a second study, the SMS was administered on two occasions and revealed adequate test-retest reliability.

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Nancy M. Gell and Danielle D. Wadsworth

Background:

The study evaluated the effects of a text message intervention on physical activity in adult working women.

Methods:

Eightyseven participants were randomized to an intervention (n = 41) or control group (n = 46). Pedometer step counts and measures of self-efficacy were collected at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. Intervention participants received approximately 3 text messages per week that were motivational, informational, and specific to performing physical activity.

Results:

ANCOVA results showed a significant difference between groups for mean steps per day at 12 weeks (6540.0 vs. 5685.0, P = .01) and no significant difference at 24 weeks (6867.7 vs. 6189.0, P = .06). There was no change in mean step counts during or after the intervention compared with baseline. There was a significant difference between groups for mean self-efficacy scores at 12 weeks (68.5 vs. 60.3, P = .02) and at 24 weeks (67.3 vs. 59.0, P = .03).

Conclusion:

Intervention participants had higher step counts after 12 and 24 weeks compared with a control group; however, the difference was significant only at the midpoint of the intervention and was attributable to a decrease in steps for the control group. Text messaging did not increase step counts but may be a cost-effective tool for maintenance of physical activity behavior.

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani, Ian Rollo, Oliver C. Witard and Stuart D. R. Galloway

(SMS; Harper et al., 2017 ). Crucially, players reported minimal gastrointestinal discomfort despite the provision of a 12% concentrated carbohydrate solution. Although an excellent study, the work of Harper et al. ( 2017 ) does raise several applied questions. First, the impact of carbohydrate

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Steriani Elavsky, Lenka Knapova, Adam Klocek and David Smahel

“text messaging” OR “SMS” in place of (“mobile devices” OR “mobile health” OR mHealth OR m-health OR e-health OR eHealth OR telemedicine). No limitations were placed on date of publication or peer-review status, but an effort was made (when possible) to use filters for population age range within the

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Matthew P. Martens and S. Nicole Webber

Motivation, particularly different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation), is a topic that has been of interest to both psychologists and sport psychologists. One area of interest in sport psychology is the assessment of different types of motivation. The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) (Pelletier et al., 1995) was created to assess an athlete’s intrinsic motivation, extrinsic-motivation, and a motivation toward sport participation. The psychometric properties of the SMS, however, have not been tested on a sample of college athletes in the U.S., which is an important component if researchers and applied sport psychologists are to use the SMS with this population. A total of 270 U.S. college athletes participated in this study. Results provided some evidence for the reliability and validity of the SMS for this population, although a confirmatory factor analysis yielded relatively poor fit indices, indicating problems with model specification. A “piecewise” model testing approach, in which different components of the model were tested separately, indicated that the biggest problems with model specification may involve the extrinsic and amotivation components of the measure.

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Sandor Dorgo, George A. King and Gregory D. Brickey

Purpose:

To investigate the effectiveness of a peer-mentored exercise program, this study compared the program perception, retention and participation rates, and physical improvements of older adults trained by peer mentors (PMs) with those of a group trained by student mentors (SMs).

Methods:

After a 30-week peer-mentor preparation, 60 older adults (M ± SD age: 68.7 ± 6.1 yr) were recruited and randomly assigned to either the PM or the SM group. Both groups completed an identical 14-week fitness program. Pre- and posttraining assessments of fitness were completed, and the efficacy of the PMs and SMs was surveyed.

Results:

High retention was observed in both groups, but the SM group had higher participation. Both groups improved their fitness significantly, with no significant posttest differences between the groups in most fitness measures or in program perception rates.

Discussion:

Findings suggest effectiveness of the peer-mentor model in an older adult exercise program.

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Chris Lonsdale, Ken Hodge and Elaine A. Rose

The purpose of the four studies described in this article was to develop and test a new measure of competitive sport participants’ intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation (self-determination theory; Deci & Ryan, 1985). The items for the new measure, named the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), were constructed using interviews, expert review, and pilot testing. Analyses supported the internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and factorial validity of the BRSQ scores. Nomological validity evidence was also supportive, as BRSQ subscale scores were correlated in the expected pattern with scores derived from measures of motivational consequences. When directly compared with scores derived from the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS; Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, Tuson, & Blais, 1995) and a revised version of that questionnaire (SMS-6; Mallett, Kawabata, Newcombe, Otero-Forero, & Jackson, 2007), BRSQ scores demonstrated equal or superior reliability and factorial validity as well as better nomological validity.

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Sarahjane Belton, Wesley O’Brien, Eric E. Wickel and Johann Issartel

Background:

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate patterns of noncompliance in an adolescent field based accelerometer study. A further purpose was to investigate the effect of a cost efficient strategy (SMS reminder message) on the compliance of adolescents

Method:

The research carried out in 2010 involved 117 second level students (12.41 ± .53 yrs) from 4 schools in a rural Irish town. The Actigraph accelerometer data were processed over 7 days to determine compliance level.

Results:

Students were more likely to remove their monitor in the evening period than at any other time, however if students removed their monitor after school it remained unworn for a significantly longer duration than in any other time period. Students who received a SMS message were significantly more likely (P = .008) to wear their monitor in the morning than those that did not.

Conclusions:

Sending an SMS message each morning is effective for improving the number of students wearing monitors to school. The after school period is a critical period for nonwear time and should be targeted in future studies wishing to improve compliance.