& Westberg, 2009 ). Particularly, in today’s intensely competitive and saturated marketplace, sport relationship marketing (SRM) is considered an essential approach to build long-term relationships with fans, employees, and other stakeholders that are vital to a sport firm’s success ( Abeza, O
Gashaw Abeza, David Finch, Norm O’Reilly, Eric MacIntosh and John Nadeau
Anthony Bouillod, Julien Pinot, Georges Soto-Romero, William Bertucci and Frederic Grappe
A large number of power meters have been produced on the market for nearly 20 y according to user requirements.
To determine the validity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and robustness of the PowerTap (PWT), Stages (STG), and Garmin Vector (VCT) power meters in comparison with the SRM device.
A national-level male competitive cyclist completed 3 laboratory cycling tests: a submaximal incremental test, a submaximal 30-min continuous test, and a sprint test. Two additional tests were performed, the first on vibration exposures in the laboratory and the second in the field.
The VCT provided a significantly lower 5-s power output (PO) during the sprint test with a low gear ratio than the SRM did (–36.9%). The STG PO was significantly lower than the SRM PO in the heavy-exercise-intensity zone (zone 2, –5.1%) and the low part of the severe-intensity zone (zone 3, –4.9%). The VCT PO was significantly lower than the SRM PO only in zone 2 (–4.5%). The STG PO was significantly lower in standing position than in the seated position (–4.4%). The reproducibility of the PWT, STG, and VCT was similar to that of the SRM system. The STG and VCT PO were significantly decreased from a vibration frequency of 48 Hz and 52 Hz, respectively.
The PWT, STG, and VCT systems appear to be reproducible, but the validity, sensitivity, and robustness of the STG and VCT systems should be treated with some caution according to the conditions of measurement.
Sébastien Duc, Vincent Villerius, William Bertucci and Frédéric Grappe
The Ergomo®Pro (EP) is a power meter that measures power output (PO) during outdoor and indoor cycling via 2 optoelectronic sensors located in the bottom bracket axis. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and the reproducibility of the EP compared with the SRM crank set and Powertap hub (PT).
The validity of the EP was tested in the laboratory during 8 submaximal incremental tests (PO: 100 to 400 W), eight 30-min submaximal constant-power tests (PO = 180 W), and 8 sprint tests (PO > 750 W) and in the field during 8 training sessions (time: 181 ± 73 min; PO: ~140 to 150 W). The reproducibility was assessed by calculating the coefficient of PO variation (CV) during the submaximal incremental and constant tests.
The EP provided a significantly higher PO than the SRM and PT during the submaximal incremental test: The mean PO differences were +6.3% ± 2.5% and +11.1% ± 2.1%, respectively. The difference was greater during field training sessions (+12.0% ± 5.7% and +16.5% ± 5.9%) but lower during sprint tests (+1.6% ± 2.5% and +3.2% ± 2.7%). The reproducibility of the EP is lower than those of the SRM and PT (CV = 4.1% ± 1.8%, 1.9% ± 0.4%, and 2.1% ± 0.8%, respectively).
The EP power meter appears less valid and reliable than the SRM and PT systems.
Alfred Nimmerichter, Bernhard Prinz, Kevin Haselsberger, Nina Novak, Dieter Simon and James G. Hopker
While a number of studies have investigated gross efficiency (GE) in laboratory conditions, few studies have analyzed it in field conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of gradient and cadence on GE in field conditions.
Thirteen trained cyclists (mean ± SD age 23.3 ± 4.1 y, stature 177.0 ± 5.5 cm, body mass 69.0 ± 7.2 kg, maximal oxygen uptake [V̇O2max] 68.4 ± 5.1 mL ∙ min–1 ∙ kg–1) completed an incremental graded exercise test to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and 4 field trials of 6 min duration at 90% of VT on flat (1.1%) and uphill terrain (5.1%) with 2 different cadences (60 and 90 rpm). V̇O2 was measured with a portable gas analyzer and power output was controlled with a mobile power crank that was mounted on a 26-in mountain bike.
GE was significantly affected by cadence (20.6% ± 1.7% vs 18.1% ± 1.3% at 60 and 90 rpm, respectively; P < .001) and terrain (20.0% ± 1.5% vs 18.7% ± 1.7% at flat and uphill cycling, respectively; P = .029). The end-exercise V̇O2 was 2536 ± 352 and 2594 ± 329 mL/min for flat and uphill cycling, respectively (P = .489). There was a significant difference in end-exercise V̇O2 between 60 (2352 ± 193 mL/min) and 90 rpm (2778 ± 431 mL/min) (P < .001).
These findings support previous laboratory-based studies demonstrating reductions in GE with increasing cadence and gradient that might be attributed to changes in muscle-activity pattern.
David S. Rowlands, Rhys M. Thorp, Karin Rossler, David F. Graham and Mike J. Rockell
Carbohydrate ingestion after prolonged strenuous exercise enhances recovery, but protein might also be important. In a crossover with 2-wk washout, 10 cyclists completed 2.5 h of intervals followed by 4-h recovery feeding, provided 218 g protein, 435 g carbohydrate, and 79 g fat (protein enriched) or 34 g protein, 640 g carbohydrate, and 79 g fat (isocaloric control). The next morning, cyclists performed 10 maximal constant-work sprints on a Velotron cycle ergometer, each lasting ~2.5 min, at ~5-min intervals. Test validity was established and test reliability and the individual response to the protein-enriched condition estimated by 6 cyclists’ repeating the intervals, recovery feeding, and performance test 2 wk later in the protein-enriched condition. During the 4-h recovery, the protein-enriched feeding had unclear effects on mean concentrations of plasma insulin, cortisol, and growth hormone, but testosterone was 25% higher (90% confidence limits, ± 14%). Protein enrichment also reduced plasma creatine kinase by 33% (±38%) the next morning and reduced tiredness and leg-soreness sensations during the sprints, but effects on mean sprint power were unclear (–1.4%, ±4.3%). The between-subjects trial-to-trial coefficient of variation in overall mean sprint power was 3.1% (±3.4%), whereas the variation in the protein-enriched condition was 5.9% (±6.9%), suggesting that individual responses to the protein-enriched treatment contributed to the unclear performance outcome. To conclude, protein-enriched recovery feeding had no clear effect on next-day performance.
José R. Lillo-Bevia and Jesús G. Pallarés
Velotron, 3 Wattbike, 4 or SRM 5 – 7 ). However, their size, weight, and price can limit their use in laboratories with low-financial resources and by private cyclists and teams. 8 Moreover, even if the ergometers, handlebars, saddles, and pedals were customized specifically for an individual cyclist
Craig Donnachie, Kate Hunt, Nanette Mutrie, Jason M.R. Gill and Paul Kelly
strong (≥0.90). Responsiveness to change in device-based and self-report PA scores between T0 and T1 was assessed using the Standardized Response Mean (SRM) or Cohen’s dz ( Cohen, 1977 ; Dankel & Loenneke, 2018 ; Lakens, 2013 ; Liang, Fossel, & Larson, 1990 ), a type of effect size that has been
S. Andy Sparks, Benjamin Dove, Craig A. Bridge, Adrian W. Midgley and Lars R. McNaughton
Power meters have traditionally been integrated into the crank set, but several manufacturers have designed new systems located elsewhere on the bike, such as inside the pedals.
This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Keo power pedals during several laboratory cycling tasks.
Ten active male participants (mean ± SD age 34.0 ± 10.6 y, height 1.77 ± 0.04 m, body mass 76.5 ± 10.7 kg) familiar with laboratory cycling protocols completed this study. Each participant was required to complete 2 laboratory cycling trials on an SRM ergometer (SRM, Germany) that was also fitted with the Keo power pedals (Look, France). The trials consisted of an incremental test to exhaustion followed by 10 min rest and then three 10-s sprint tests separated by 3 min of cycling at 100 W.
Over power ranges of 75 to 1147 W, the Keo power-pedal system produced typical error values of 0.40, 0.21, and 0.21 for the incremental, sprint, and combined trials, respectively, compared with the SRM. Mean differences of 21.0 and 18.6 W were observed between trials 1 and 2 with the Keo system in the incremental and combined protocols, respectively. In contrast, the SRM produced differences of 1.3 and 0.6 W for the same protocols.
The power data from the Keo power pedals should be treated with some caution given the presence of mean differences between them and the SRM. Furthermore, this is exacerbated by poorer reliability than that of the SRM power meter.
Paolo Menaspà, Franco M. Impellizzeri, Eric C. Haakonssen, David T. Martin and Chris R. Abbiss
To determine the consistency of commercially available devices used for measuring elevation gain in outdoor activities and sports.
Two separate observational validation studies were conducted. Garmin (Forerunner 310XT, Edge 500, Edge 750, and Edge 800; with and without elevation correction) and SRM (Power Control 7) devices were used to measure total elevation gain (TEG) over a 15.7-km mountain climb performed on 6 separate occasions (6 devices; study 1) and during a 138-km cycling event (164 devices; study 2).
TEG was significantly different between the Garmin and SRM devices (P < .05). The between-devices variability in TEG was lower when measured with the SRM than with the Garmin devices (study 1: 0.2% and 1.5%, respectively). The use of the Garmin elevation-correction option resulted in a 5–10% increase in the TEG.
While measurements of TEG were relatively consistent within each brand, the measurements differed between the SRM and Garmin devices by as much as 3%. Caution should be taken when comparing elevation-gain data recorded with different settings or with devices of different brands.
Craig A. Williams, Eric Doré, James Alban and Emmanuel Van Praagh
This study investigated the differences in short-term power output (STPO) using three different cycle ergometers in 9-year-old children. A total of 31 children participated in three cycle ergometer sprint tests of 20 s duration: a modified friction braked Monark, a modified friction braked Ergomeca cycle ergometer, and a SRM isokinetic ergometer. Common indices of peak and mean power, peak pedal rate, time to peak power, and pedal rate were recorded. Indices of peak power 1 s for the Monark, Ergomeca and SRM ergometer were found to be 299 ± 55, 294 ± 55, 297 ± 53 W and mean power 20 s to be 223 ± 40, 227 ± 43 and 216 ± 34 W, respectively. The time to peak power was found to be 3 ± 2, 6 ± 2, 5 ± 3 s, respectively. The standard error of measurement was lower in mean 20-s power compared to 1-s peak power. Despite instrumentation and protocol differences these results demonstrate reproducibility in 9-year-old children that will allow researchers confidence in comparing STPO data obtained from different ergometers.