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Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

). Each participant completed two experimental trials, consuming a hydrogel CES (HGel) or standard carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES-Std) in a double-blind, randomized crossover design. Preliminary Measures One week before the first experimental trial, the height, nude body mass, fat, and fat

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Wayne W. Munson, Stanley B. Baker and Herberta M. Lundegren

A systematic strength training and structured leisure counseling program was investigated to determine the effects on self-esteem, leisure attitudes, leisure behaviors, and muscular fitness of institutionalized juvenile delinquents. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: strength training and leisure counseling (STLC), strength training and informal discussion (STD), or a no-treatment control group (NT). The experimental groups met 3 times a week, 90 minutes per session for 7 weeks. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that there were no significant differences among the three groups on measures of self-esteem, leisure attitudes, or leisure behaviors. Analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated that there were no significant differences between the STLC and STD groups on muscular fitness, although both had significant pre- to posttest gains. The STLC and STD groups rated their treatments high on an attitude toward treatment measure, but neither group was significantly more positive about it than the other.

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Sebastien Racinais, Martin Buchheit, Johann Bilsborough, Pitre C. Bourdon, Justin Cordy and Aaron J. Coutts


To examine the physiological and performance responses to a heat-acclimatization camp in highly trained professional team-sport athletes.


Eighteen male Australian Rules Football players trained for 2 wk in hot ambient conditions (31–33°C, humidity 34–50%). Players performed a laboratory-based heat-response test (24-min walk + 24 min seated; 44°C), a YoYo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 Test (YoYoIR2; indoor, temperate environment, 23°C) and standardized training drills (STD; outdoor, hot environment, 32°C) at the beginning and end of the camp.


The heat-response test showed partial heat acclimatization (eg, a decrease in skin temperature, heart rate, and sweat sodium concentration, P < .05). In addition, plasma volume (PV, CO rebreathing, +2.68 [0.83; 4.53] mL/kg) and distance covered during both the YoYoIR2 (+311 [260; 361] m) and the STD (+45.6 [13.9; 77.4] m) increased postcamp (P < .01). None of the performance changes showed clear correlations with PV changes (r < .24), but the improvements in running STD distance in hot environment were correlated with changes in hematocrit during the heat-response test (r = –.52, 90%CI [–.77; –.12]). There was no clear correlation between the performance improvements in temperate and hot ambient conditions (r < .26).


Running performance in both hot and temperate environments was improved after a football training camp in hot ambient conditions that stimulated heat acclimatization. However, physiological and performance responses were highly individual, and the absence of correlations between physical-performance improvements in hot and temperate environments suggests that their physiological basis might differ.

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Christopher J. Palmer and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

rest as they wanted between shots, targets, and configurations to minimize fatigue effects. The four load configurations were unloaded (UL)—gun only (4.68 kg); standard (STD)—gun, vest, assault pack, and helmet (37.4 kg); upper extremity (UE) armor—standard configuration plus four UE armor plates

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Victoria McGee and J.D. DeFreese

exploratory models with the exception of complementarity which was a significant positive predictor of the burnout dimension of emotional/physical exhaustion. See Tables  3 – 6 . Table 3 Within-Person Variation Models for Global Burnout Null Model Model 1 Model 2 Variable Estimate Std. Error Sig. Estimate Std

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Jung-Hoon Choi, Heon-Seock Cynn, Chung-Hwi Yi, Tae-Lim Yoon and Seung-Min Baik

without IHA in a sitting and standing position. (A) SF-SIT, (B) SF-STD, (C) SFIHA-SIT, (D) SFIHA-STD. IHA indicates isometric hip abduction; SF-SIT, SFE without IHA in a sitting position; SF-STD, SFE without IHA in a standing position; SFE, short-foot exercise; SFIHA-SIT, SFE with IHA in a sitting

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Chiharu Iwasaka, Tsubasa Mitsutake and Etsuo Horikawa

Multivariate Linear Regression Model of Gait Speed and Muscle Mass and Asymmetric Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Independent variable Estimate SE Std. beta t ratio 95% CI p Estimate SE Std. beta t ratio 95% CI p Estimate SE Std. beta t ratio 95% CI p Estimate SE Std. beta t ratio 95% CI p Lower

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Jacqueline Phillips, Kelly Cheever, Jamie McKeon and Ryan Tierney

Difference Std. Error p Lower Upper Upper lip   Nose tip 1.55 .400 .006* .371 2.729   Nose bridge .225 .383 1.000 −.901 1.351   Fingertip 3.225 .656 .001* 1.293 5.157 Nose tip   Upper lip −1.55 .400 .006* −2.72 −.371   Nose bridge −1.325 .546 .152 −2.93 .281   Fingertip 1.675 .463 .011* .313 3.037 Nose

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Stephanie Di Lemme, Jon Sanderson, Richard G. Celebrini and Geoffrey C. Dover

-intensity pulsed ultrasound 6 Blood flow restriction BFR at rest 4 × 5 mins:5 mins 3 BFR ANK pf/df 1 × 30 3 × 15 1 BFR HIP abd skating 1 × 30 3 × 15 2 BFR std HIP abd 1 × 30 3 × 15 2 BFR HIP abd skating 1 × 30 3 × 15 1 BFR std H/S curl 1 × 30 3 × 15 2 BFR std H/S curl 1 × 30 3 × 15 2 BFR KN ext 1 × 30 3 × 15 2.5 2