The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) is a multidimensional physical self-concept instrument with 11 scales: Strength, Body Fat, Activity, Endurance/Fitness, Sports Competence, Coordination, Health, Appearance, Flexibility, Global Physical, and Global Esteem. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the construct validity of PSDQ responses in relation to 23 external criteria, including measures of body composition, physical activity, endurance, strength, and flexibility for 192 (113 boys and 79 girls) high school students. Each external validity criterion was predicted a priori to be most highly correlated with one of the PSDQ scales. In support of the convergent validity of the PSDQ responses, every predicted correlation was statistically significant. In support of the discriminant validity of the PSDQ responses, most predicted correlations were larger than other correlations involving the same criterion. These results support the construct validity of PSDQ responses in relation to external criteria and their potential usefulness in a wide variety of sports and exercise settings.
Herbert W. Marsh, Garry E. Richards, Steven Johnson, Lawrence Roche and Patsy Tremayne
Two samples of high school students (n = 315 and n = 395) completed the new Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to demonstrate support for the 11 scales of physical self-concept (Strength, Body Fat, Activity, Endurance/Fitness, Sport Competence, Coordination, Health, Appearance, Flexibility, General Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem) that the PSDQ is designed to measure, the replicability of its good psychometric properties in the two samples, and the replicability of the factor structure over gender. Subjects in Sample 1 also completed responses to the Physical Self-Perception Profile (Fox, 1990) and the Physical Self-Concept Scale (Richards, 1988). CFA models of this multitrait-multimethod data provided support for both the convergent and discriminant validity of responses to the three instruments. Comparisons of psychometric, theoretical, and pragmatic considerations of the three instruments led to the recommendation of the PSDQ in a wide variety of research and applied settings.
Inés Tomás, Herbert W. Marsh, Vicente González-Romá, Víctor Valls and Benjamin Nagengast
Test of measurement invariance across translated versions of questionnaires is a critical prerequisite to comparing scores on the different versions. In this study, we used exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as an alternative approach to evaluate the measurement invariance of the Spanish version of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). The two versions were administered to large samples of Australian and Spanish adolescents. First, we compared the CFA and ESEM approaches and showed that ESEM fitted the data much better and resulted in substantially more differentiated factors. We then tested measurement invariance with a 13-model ESEM taxonomy. Results justified using the Spanish version of the PSDQ to carry out cross-cultural comparisons in sport and exercise psychology research. Overall, the study can stimulate research on physical self-concept across countries and foster better cross-cultural comparisons.
Herbert W. Marsh, Andrew J. Martin and Susan Jackson
Based on the Physical Self Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) normative archive (n = 1,607 Australian adolescents), 40 of 70 items were selected to construct a new short form (PSDQ-S). The PSDQ-S was evaluated in a new cross-validation sample of 708 Australian adolescents and four additional samples: 349 Australian elite-athlete adolescents, 986 Spanish adolescents, 395 Israeli university students, 760 Australian older adults. Across these six groups, the 11 PSDQ-S factors had consistently high reliabilities and invariant factor structures. Study 1, using a missing-by-design variation of multigroup invariance tests, showed invariance across 40 PSDQ-S items and 70 PSDQ items. Study 2 demonstrated factorial invariance over a 1-year interval (test–retest correlations .57–.90; Mdn = .77), and good convergent and discriminant validity in relation to time. Study 3 showed good and nearly identical support for convergent and discriminant validity of PSDQ and PSDQ-S responses in relation to two other physical self-concept instruments.
Herbert W. Marsh, Clark Perry, Chris Horsely and Lawrence Roche
A broad cross-section of elite athletes (n = 83) was compared to a normative sample (n = 2,436) of nonathletes on the 13 self-concept scales for the Self-Description Questionnaire III (SDQIII). On these scales athletes had substantially higher Physical Ability self-concepts than nonathletes, but did not differ on Physical Appearance self-concepts. There were smaller differences favoring athletes on social scales (Same Sex, Opposite Sex, and Parent Relationships), Global Esteem, and the total self-concept. Group differences were not statistically significant for the academic scales (Math, Verbal, Academic, and Problem Solving) and Emotional self-concept, whereas nonathletes had marginally higher Spiritual and Honesty self-concepts. Athlete/nonathlete differences varied somewhat according to gender, generally favoring women athletes. Because the pattern of group differences (e.g., large differences in Physical Ability and minimal differences in Academic self-concept scales) is reasonably similar to a priori predictions, the results provide further support for the construct validity of SDQIII responses.
Herbert W. Marsh and Robyn Sutherland Redmayne
This study examines relations between six components of physical self-concept (Endurance, Balance, Flexibility, Strength, Appearance, and general Physical Ability) and five components of physical fitness (Endurance, Balance, Flexibility, Static Strength, Explosive Strength/Power) for a sample (N = 105) of young adolescent girls aged 13 and 14. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses identified the six physical self-concept scales and provided support for a multidimensional, hierarchical model of physical self-concept. The pattern of correlations between specific components of physical self-concept and physical fitness generally supported the construct validity of the self-concept responses, and the correlation between second-order factors representing general physical self-concept and general physical fitness (r = .76) was substantial.
Florence Guérin, Herbert W. Marsh and Jean-Pierre Famose
Two studies tested the generalizability of support for within- and between-construct validity based on responses to a French translation of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) by high school students. The PSDQ is a multidimensional physical self-concept instrument designed to measure 11 components: health, coordination, physical activity, body fat, sports competence, global physical, appearance, strength, flexibility, endurance, and esteem. In the first study (N = 752), preliminary reliability analysis revealed strong internal consistency and overall stability. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for structural equivalence with the original instrument. In the second study (N = 288), PSDQ factors were related to 13 external criteria of physical fitness; each was predicted a priori to be most highly correlated with one of the PSDQ scales. Bivariate correlations and CFA models supported both the convergent and discriminant validity of the PSDQ responses. These overall results demonstrated good support for the generalizability of the PSDQ with French adolescents.
Herbert W. Marsh and Clark Perry
Elite athlete self-concepts contributed to championship performances in two international swimming championships beyond that which could be explained by previous personal best (PPB) performances for 257 of the world’s top swimmers from 30 countries. Responses to the Elite Swimmer Self-Description Questionnaire (ESSDQ) completed at the start of each championship (prior to competition) were psychometrically strong and resulted in a well-defined factor structure. Whereas championship performance was highly related to PPB performance (r = .90), structural equation models demonstrated that elite athlete self-concept also contributed significantly to the prediction of subsequent championship performance, explaining approximately 10% of the residual variance after controlling for PPB. For swimmers who competed in two events, results based on the first event were replicated in the second. The results have important theoretical, substantive, and practical implications for mentors and educators.
Herbert W. Marsh
Theoretical models of relations between specific components of physical self-concept, global physical self-concept, and global esteem are evaluated. Self-concept models posit that the effect of a specific domain (e.g., strength, endurance, or appearance) on global components should vary with the importance an individual places on the specific domain, but empirical support for this prediction is weak. Fox (1990) incorporated a related assumption into his hierarchical model of physical self-concept, but did not test this assumption. In empirical tests based on responses to the newly developed Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, relations between specific and global components of physical self-concept did not vary with the perceived importance of the specific component, and unweighted averages of specific components were as highly related to global components as importance weighted averages. These results provide no support for the importance of importance in modifying relations between domain-specific and general components of self-concept.
Jennifer R. O’Neill, Angela D. Liese, Robert E. McKeown, Bo Cai, Steven P. Cuffe, Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis, Richard F. Hamman and Dana Dabelea
In this study, the relationship between physical activity (PA) and 3 self-concept constructs (physical abilities, physical appearance, and general self-concept) was examined. Youth with type 1 diabetes (n = 304), type 2 diabetes (n = 49), and nondiabetic controls (n = 127) aged 10−20 years wore pedometers over 7 days. Youth completed the Self-Description Questionnaire and correlation coefficients were calculated. Mean steps/day were 7413 ± 3415, 4959 ± 3474 and 6870 ± 3521 for type 1, type 2 and control youth, respectively. Significant correlations were found between steps/day and perception of physical abilities (r = .29; r = .31; r = .31) for type 1, type 2, and control youth, respectively. The other correlations were not significant. Among youth with type 2 diabetes, steps/day were significantly correlated with physical appearance (r = .46). The positive correlation between PA and physical abilities suggests a reciprocal relationship between behavior and perception.