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Nathanael C.H. Ong

deferment was not granted, Davis would still sign the contract and consider renouncing his Singapore citizenship to pursue his career ( Abdul Aziz, 2018a ). Harvey Davis responded by stating that he acknowledged the importance of NS and that Davis will serve NS, but the issue was with regard to the timing

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Sapphire H. Lin

Many societies have aging populations. An aging population impacts nearly all sectors of society ( United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2017 ). Singapore is a country in Southeast Asia with a rapidly aging population. The age pyramid is increasingly heavier at the top because

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Daniel Smith and Goh Wai Leng

Physical education teachers have received little attention in the literature on burnout. This study assessed the burnout levels of secondary school physical education teachers in Singapore and identified some specific work conditions related to burnout. The Work Environment (WE) questionnaire (Fejgin, Ephraty, & Ben-Sira, 1995), administered to 74 Singapore physical education teachers, measured the relationship between burnout and four theoretical dimensions: psychological (PD), structural-physical (SPD), social (SD), and bureaucratic (BD). The level of burnout was assessed by a burnout inventory compiled by Pines and Aronson (1981). A bivariate correlation established the relationship between burnout and the four dimensions. Multiple regression determined the relationship between burnout and the demographic data. It was found that physical education teachers in Singapore experienced only moderate levels of burnout. They perceived BD, PD, and SD to be significant contributors. However, there was no significant relationship between the demographic data (age, gender, race, marital status, position, years of teaching, and educational level) and burnout among teachers.

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Koon Teck Koh, Wenxiang Foo, Goken Sakamoto and Adrian Low

The demand for certified sports coaches in Singapore is high, especially from the schools and private sectors. This trend is in line with the significant global growth of the vocation of sports coaching (Taylor & Garratt, 2013). The purpose of this paper is to provide an informal review of the state of coaching and coach education in Singapore, by addressing three main themes: (1) provide an overview of the evolution of the Singaporean coaching system since the late 1990s, (2) describe examples of identified ground up initiatives from various stakeholders within the coaching ecosystem and (3) draw conclusions from existing literature and provide suggestions on how coach education systems can be further developed. The foundation of the current coaching system was established in the late 1990s with the introduction of the National Coaching Accreditation Program (NCAP) and it is still the benchmark for the coaching practice in Singapore today. The basic NCAP is broken down to a theory and technical component which is administered by the Singapore Sports Council (SSC) and the National Sports Associations (NSAs) respectively. The SSC had embarked on various initiatives over the years to ensure that more Singaporeans have access to quality coaching.

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Helen Gilbey and Malcolm Gilbey

Physical activity patterns of Singapore school children aged 9–10 years were assessed by continuous heart rate monitoring. Fifty boys and 64 girls were monitored for three 14-hour periods during normal school days. In addition, 43 boys and 53 girls were monitored for 14 hours on a Saturday. Only 13 children (11.4%) experienced a daily 10-min period of continuous activity at a heart rate ≥140 bpm. Twenty percent of the boys and more than 50% of the girls never achieved a single 10-minute period ≥140 bpm. Boys achieved more periods of moderately intense activity (p < .01) than girls on weekdays. Lean girls were more active (p < .05) than the obese girls during weekdays. No differences were detected between activity levels on weekdays or on Saturday. The results indicate that Singapore school children in general rarely experience the quantity or quality of physical activity needed for maintenance and development of cardiovascular health and cardiopulmonary fitness.

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Tan Leng Goh and Kerrie J. Kauer

This article is a feminist cultural-studies analysis of Singapore’s first all-female mountaineering team to successfully summit Mount Everest. A feminist cultural-studies approach was used to explore the highly male hegemonic domain of mountaineering and the ways in which the Singapore Women’s Everest Team (SWET) was situated within the sport and their local Singapore culture. Qualitative, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with six elite-level Singaporean female mountaineers (ages 25 to 39) were conducted by the first author in January 2009, before their attempt to summit Mount Everest. Using inductive analysis and feminist deconstruction, several salient themes emerged from the data: (a) disrupting norms, (b) sexism in extreme sports, and (c) women-centered spaces. The interviewees demonstrated unity as an all-women team as they overcame challenges in their pursuit of climbing Mount Everest. This study attempts to expand the sport studies literature with multicultural and gendered perspectives of female mountaineers.

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Helen C. Wright, David A. Sugden, Richard Ng and John Tan

This investigation is concerned with the identification and assessment of Singaporean primary school children who have developmental coordination disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1987). The present study forms part of a larger project concerned with the suitability of currently available assessment techniques and intervention programs for use in Singapore. In this paper the usefulness of the Movement ABC Checklist and Test as an assessment instrument is explored. The data on a sample of 212 7- and 8-year-olds compared favorably with data from the standardized sample in the United Kingdom. Age and gender differences were similar, and the effects of increasing task difficulty within the checklist were generally confirmed. The checklist identified 15.6% of children as having movement problems or being at risk, which was close to the value obtained in the U.K. The Movement ABC Test provided evidence of the validity of this figure as it successfully differentiated the selected children from age-matched controls who scored well on the checklist. Although some of the items in both instruments need modification, the results suggest that the Movement ABC package is a workable research tool in the Singaporean context.

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Koon Teck Koh, Clifford J. Mallett, Martin Camiré and Chee Keng John Wang

The purpose of this study was to conduct a guided reflection intervention for high performance basketball coaches. The study participants included two head basketball coaches and 10 of their players who were part of elite youth teams in Singapore. The coaches were highly experienced, each with 17 and 20 years of coaching experience respectively, and the players from both teams (one male and one female) reported on average three years of playing experience at the national youth level. The Singapore coaching behavior scale for sport (CBS-S basketball), on-site observations, and interviews were used to gather data from the coaches and players. Coaches also kept a reflective journal throughout the intervention. The results showed how the coaches responded differently to the guided reflection intervention (implemented by the first author) in terms of their willingness to adapt and integrate new perspectives into their coaching practice. The coaches’ level of reflection was found to be contingent upon a) their motivation and desire to be engaged in the process and b) the worth they saw in the learning facilitator’s recommendations to improve their athletes’ technical and tactical development. The results also showed how the coaches’ behaviors were linked to players’ satisfaction level with their work. The results are discussed using the coaching science literature and practical implications are proposed to optimize coaches’ use of reflection as a learning tool to improve their coaching practice.

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Wai Pong Wong, Yi Zhao and Woon-Puay Koh

The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D gene polymorphism has been studied for its role in determining habitual physical activity level, but there is no information from Asian populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether this ACE gene polymorphism was associated with physical activity level among Chinese in Singapore. In this cross-sectional study, 110 normotensive Chinese in Singapore, age 21–61 yr, completed the short-form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and contributed buccal cell samples for genotyping of the ACE I/D gene polymorphism using polymerase chain-reaction amplification. They also provided demographic information and underwent anthropometric measurements. Physical activity level was expressed as continuous (in kcal/wk) and categorical (low, moderate, or high) data. The 3 genotypes of ACE were DD (homozygous for the deletion allele), II (homozygous for the insertion allele), and ID. Among the participants, 28.2% reported low, 49.1% moderate, and 22.7% high physical activity level. Frequencies of the genotypes were 11.8% for DD, 42.7% for ID, and 45.5% for II. ACE genotype was independently associated with physical activity level. After age, gender, and body-mass index were adjusted for, individuals with DD or ID genotypes were more likely to report insufficient or low physical activity level than those with II genotypes (odds ratio = 6.88; 95% confidence interval: 2.26, 20.94). In conclusion, the I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene is significantly associated with self-reported physical activity level in normotensive Chinese Singaporeans.

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Calum Alexander Arthur, Tim Woodman, Chin Wei Ong, Lew Hardy and Nikos Ntoumanis

Leadership research that examines follower characteristics as a potential moderator of leadership effectiveness is lacking. Within Bass’s (1985) transformational leadership framework, we examined follower narcissism as a moderator of the coach behavior–coach effectiveness relationship. Youth athletes (male = 103, female = 106) from the Singapore Sports Academy (mean age = 14.28, SD = 1.40 years) completed the Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory (Callow, Smith, Hardy, Arthur, & Hardy, 2009), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988), and indices of follower effort. Multilevel analyses revealed that athlete narcissism moderated the relationship between fostering acceptance of group goals and athlete effort and between high performance expectations and athlete effort. All the other transformational leader behaviors demonstrated main effects on follower effort, except for inspirational motivation.