formation, 5 and decrease pain. 8 , 14 Previous research has found that wetted ice bags (IBs) and salted IBs are able to produce greater intramuscular temperature decreases than traditional cubed and crushed IBs. 15 , 16 Studies examining cooling magnitude of cryotherapy modalities often measure skin
Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck, and JoLynn Leisinger
Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck, JoLynn Leisinger, Mackenzie Tucker, and Sarah Hurst
control group, on intramuscular and skin temperatures. We hypothesized that wetted ice would result in greater intramuscular and skin temperature cooling compared with gel pack. Methods Participants A total of 12 healthy participants (4 men and 8 women; age = 23.08 (1.93) y, height = 171.66 (9.47) cm
Walaa M. Elsais, Stephen J. Preece, Richard K. Jones, and Lee Herrington
between the muscle and skin could lead to a relative shift in the position of an adductor EMG electrode with respect to the underlying muscle and result in contamination of the EMG signal with electrical activity from an adjacent muscle. This movement could arise from 2 separate mechanisms. First, when a
Thomas W. Jones, Barry C. Shillabeer, and Marco Cardinale
Infrared thermography (IRT) detects infrared light emitted by the body to visualize changes in body heat due to abnormalities in the surface blood flow. Human skin, with an emissivity of 0.98, is almost equal to a blackbody radiator, 1 and therefore, thermal images can be used to assess thermal
Phillip Ward, Myung-Ah Lee, and Myung-Ah Lee
In this article we provide a review of theory and research on the use of peers to influence learning outcomes in physical education. First, we summarize the empirical literature on the use of peers in general education. Next, Piaget’s equilibration theory, Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, and Skinner’s behavior analytic theory are discussed with particular reference to their implications for the use of peers in educational settings. This is followed by a review of findings from research studies using peers in physical education settings and includes suggestions for future research. We conclude with a discussion of implications for practice.
Jose Ignacio Priego-Quesada, Alejandro Pérez-Guarner, Alexis Gandia-Soriano, Fran Oficial-Casado, Carlos Galindo, Rosa M. Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, José David Piñeiro-Ramos, Ángel Sánchez-Illana, Julia Kuligowski, Marco A. Gomes Barbosa, Máximo Vento, and Rosario Salvador Palmer
parameters are usually measured to determine internal load, all of them present one limitation or another, such as high interindividual and intraindividual differences, response variability, economical cost, or being too time consuming. 2 , 3 Skin temperature assessment has attracted attention in recent
Matthew Rivera, Lindsey Eberman, Kenneth Games, and Cameron J. Powden
manual 9 and may play a role in the treatment of shoulder pathologies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the cumulative effects of serial GT or SMR treatments on PM length, glenohumeral TAM, and skin temperature. We hypothesized that there would be greater increases in PM length and
Jack R. Engsberg, Lawrence G. Lenke, Keith H. Bridwell, Mary L. Uhrich, and Connie M. Trout
This investigation determined relationships between coronal vertical alignment (CVA) and sagittal vertical alignment (SVA) variables calculated from radiographs and surface markers representing bony landmarks. Biplanar radiographs were taken on 28 subjects (standing) after 2 metallic surface markers were placed on the skin superficial to C7 and S2. The CVA-R and SVA-R were measured on the radiographs. Similar variables were calculated from the surface markers (CVA-P-R, SVA-P-R). Correlation between CVA-R and CVA-P-R was 0.894 (p < 0.000), and between SVA-R and SVA-P-R was 0.946 (p < 0.000). Results lead to three recommendations: (1) obtain surface marker data when radiographs are taken to establish relationships between the two sets of data, (2) take care in providing instructions to the subjects if measures are to be taken at different times, and (3) observe caution in interpreting results when simultaneous x-ray and surface marker data were not recorded.
Jennifer M. Medina McKeon and Patrick O. McKeon
forward and be creative in developing new CATs or implementing a different analysis on the outcomes used from the same external evidence. It just goes to show you, there really is more than one way to skin a CAT! Acknowledgments Although Medina McKeon and McKeon were co-authors on the Booth et al. 4
Justin H. Rigby and Shaylene B. Dye
A variety of cryotherapy systems may be used to cool tissues immediately after an injury. The purpose our study was to examine the effect of a 30-min application of various cryotherapy devices on skin temperatures and compression. A crossover-designed study performed in a university research laboratory was conducted. Each treatment condition was applied to the lateral ankle for 30 min on different days. HyperIce’s colder temperatures over the lateral ankle (p < .0001) would make it the treatment choice for immediate care of ankle lateral ligament injuries, but is limited due its size for larger injuries.