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Melissa Mae Iñigo, Leslie Podlog and Morgan S. Hall

The purpose of this study was to examine athletes’ sources of commitment to return to sport following a severe injury using the Sport Commitment Model (Scanlan, Carpenter, Schmidt, Simons, & Keeler, 1993). To address this aim, ten varsity athletes from the University of the Philippines Diliman were interviewed following protocols outlined in the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method (SCIM; Scanlan, Russell, Wilson, & Scanlan, 2003a). Results indicate that sport enjoyment, valuable opportunities, personal investments, social constraints, and social support were salient sources of commitment, while other priorities had either a neutral or positive effect on commitment. Furthermore, additional constructs were identified, in particular, wanting to be the best, self-affirmation, and contractual obligations. These merit further investigation and possible inclusion in the SCM. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research and practical implications are offered.

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Windee M. Weiss

and persistence through an extensive rehabilitation process may become the responsibility for athletic trainers. Applying key concepts from the sport commitment model (SCM), 2 – 4 to sport injury rehabilitation may give the athletic trainer important tools to facilitate motivation and persistence in

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Tara K. Scanlan, Paul J. Carpenter, Jeffery P. Simons, Greg W. Schmidt and Bruce Keeler

This article introduces a sport-specific theoretical model of commitment. Sport commitment is defined as a psychological state representing the desire or resolve to continue sport participation. The Sport Commitment Model proposes that sport commitment is determined by sport enjoyment, involvement alternatives, personal investments, social constraints, and involvement opportunities. Greater sport enjoyment, personal investments, social constraints, involvement opportunities, and less attractive involvement alternatives are predicted to lead to higher levels of sport commitment. Constitutive definitions were established for each of the model's components, and questionnaire items were developed. Results from the first empirical test of the model conducted with girls (n = 95) and boys (n = 83) participating in a Little League program showed that the questionnaire items formed reliable scales. Correlational analyses demonstrated that several predictors were related to sport commitment as hypothesized. Stepwise regression findings revealed that sport enjoyment and personal investments were the dominant predictors of commitment for this sample. Together, these two model components accounted for 58% of the sport commitment variance.

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Tara K. Scanlan, Paul J. Carpenter, Jeffery P. Simons, Greg W. Schmidt and Bruce Keeler

This article presents our progress in developing a set of survey measures to assess constructs of the Sport Commitment Model in the youth-sport domain. Initial item development was accomplished through extensive literature reviews and the expert evaluations of research professionals, teachers, and young athletes. The items were then examined empirically with three separate samples numbering 140, 178, and 1342 athletes, respectively. For the first two samples, items formed reliable scales for each of the model constructs and separated into distinct factors largely as hypothesized. For the third sample, structural-equation modeling was employed and results supported the measurement of four constructs, with the other two constructs held from the measurement model because of item limitations. Overall, results of the three samples indicate reliable measures that can be used in tests of the Sport Commitment Model across samples of youth-sport athletes representing diversity in age, gender, and ethnicity.

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Paul J. Carpenter, Tara K. Scanlan, Jeffery P. Simons and Marci Lobel

This article presents the results of a structural equation modeling analysis of the Sport Commitment Model. This model proposes that commitment is determined by sport enjoyment, involvement alternatives, personal investments, social constraints, and involvement opportunities. Preliminary analyses demonstrated that the model was applicable to both younger (< 12 years old) and older (> 13 years old) athletes, to males and females, and to three different team sports. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that the proposed model was a good fit of the data (CFI = .981), with the findings accounting for 68% of the commitment variance. As predicted, greater sport enjoyment, involvement opportunities, and the personal investments of time and effort led to greater commitment. Counter to our initial hypothesis, commitment was negatively related to social constraints. Measurement problems led to the involvement alternatives component being excluded from tests of the model presented here, but not from the theoretical model.

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Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, Larry A. Scanlan, Tatiana J. Klunchoo and Graig M. Chow

Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players’ open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model.

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Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, T. Michelle Magyar and Larry A. Scanlan

The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand’s elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.

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Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, Kristin P. Beals and Larry A. Scanlan

Prospective interview data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method (Scanlan, Russell, Wilson, & Scanlan, 2003) allow further testing and expansion of the Sport Commitment Model (Scanlan, Carpenter, Schmidt, Simons, & Keeler, 1993) and provide a deeper understanding of the commitment process. We examine the Model constructs of Sport Enjoyment, Involvement Opportunities, Involvement Alternatives, Personal Investments, Social Constraints, and a potential new construct, Social Support, to understand how and under what conditions each of the constructs operates. The data from 15 New Zealand All Black rugby players support the Model predictions, show its generalizability from American youth sport to amateur elite-level New Zealand athletes, and suggest possible Model expansion and modification.

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Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, Noela C. Wilson and Larry A. Scanlan

We present an application of the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method (SCIM) to the Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK). PEAK examines three samples of elite international athletes to further test and expand the Sport Commitment Model and assess its external validity. This first article in the series provides detailed descriptions of the study rationale, methods, procedures, interview schedule, and analysis strategy common to the three samples, along with participant characteristics and selection criteria. It also shares participants’ observations of the centrality of commitment to their athletic success, and their evaluation of the interview process.

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Jeanne M. Gabriele, Diane L. Gill and Claire E. Adams


Several theories and models have been proposed to explain decisions in changing and adopting behavior but few address the intricacies of behavioral maintenance. The current study assesses the utility of the Investment Model, which identifies satisfaction, investments, and involvement alternatives as predictors of commitment and continued behavior, in predicting physical activity behavior.


Participants (N = 267) completed questionnaires about physical activity and commitment. Structural equation modeling assessed relationships among 2 types of exercise commitment (want to or enthusiastic commitment, have to or obligatory commitment), 3 commitment determinants (satisfaction, investments, and alternatives), and physical activity (minutes of physical activity, stage of behavior change).


Want to commitment, but not have to commitment, was related to stage of exercise behavior change and time spent in physical activity. Satisfaction and investments were positively related to want to commitment; whereas, satisfaction, investments, and alternatives were positively related to have to commitment. The model explained 68% and 23% of the variance in time spent in physical activity and stage of behavior change, respectively.


This study provides support for the application of the Investment Model to physical activity and suggests that want to commitment may be important for explaining and predicting sustained physical activity behavior.