subjects were asked to perform the following three tasks ( Tsang et al., 2013 ). Testing Two types of test were employed. One was an auditory Stroop test demanding executive attention ( Siu, Chou, Mayr, Donkelaar, & Hoollacott, 2008 ). In this study, the Cantonese words for “high” and “low” were pronounced
Ming Fung Godfrey Lui, Hung Kay Daniel Chow, Wai Ming Kenny Wong and Wai Nam William Tsang
Caroline Westwood, Carolyn Killelea, Mallory Faherty and Timothy Sell
test. 3 , 4 The Stroop test, a visual, color-based load, has good test–retest reliability. 4 One of the first steps in the development of a tool to screen for musculoskeletal injury following concussion is to determine the reliability of the assessment in a healthy population. Both static
Eduardo Macedo Penna, Edson Filho, Samuel Penna Wanner, Bruno Teobaldo Campos, Gabriel Resende Quinan, Thiago Teixeira Mendes, Mitchell Robert Smith and Luciano Sales Prado
10 minutes. Mental fatigue and mental effort data were gathered, and after the initial 5 minutes, their heart rate was recorded. These time intervals were standardized and tightly controlled. Treatment Mental fatigue was induced by a 30-minute paper version of a modified Stroop test. This test has
SeYun Park and Jennifer L. Etnier
conducted a study testing the effects of sprinting activity on cognitive performance by adolescents (M = 12.6 y). Results showed that high-intensity exercise improved performance on the Stroop Test (a measure of EF), but it did not affect performance on a memory task or a psychomotor speed task. In sum, a
Yoshifumi Ikeda, Hideyuki Okuzumi and Mitsuru Kokubun
This study investigated whether cognitive processing is influenced by stepping in place, particularly according to its frequency. Fourteen healthy young participants performed the Stroop test during stepping in place at various frequencies. Results showed the following: (a) performances on the Stroop test and at stepping in place at 1, 2, and 3 Hz were not so mutually influential, (b) performing the Stroop test degraded the timing of stepping in place at 4 Hz, (c) stepping at 0.5 Hz interfered with the cognitive processing involved with perceiving and naming colors but not with inhibitory control. These results imply that stepping in place is differentially controlled between walking at 1–4 Hz and at 0.5 Hz, the latter of which demands more attention.
Anneke G. van der Niet, Joanne Smith, Jaap Oosterlaan, Erik J.A. Scherder, Esther Hartman and Chris Visscher
The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a physical activity program including both aerobic exercise and cognitively engaging physical activities on children’s physical fitness and executive functions. Children from 3 primary schools (aged 8–12 years) were recruited. A quasi-experimental design was used. Children in the intervention group (n = 53; 19 boys, 34 girls) participated in a 22-week physical activity program for 30 min during lunch recess, twice a week. Children in the control group (n = 52; 32 boys, 20 girls) followed their normal lunch routine. Aerobic fitness, speed and agility, and muscle strength were assessed using the Eurofit test battery. Executive functions were assessed using tasks measuring inhibition (Stroop test), working memory (Visual Memory Span test, Digit Span test), cognitive flexibility (Trailmaking test), and planning (Tower of London). Children in the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement than children in the control group on the Stroop test and Digit Span test, reflecting enhanced inhibition and verbal working memory skills, respectively. No differences were found on any of the physical fitness variables. A physical activity program including aerobic exercise and cognitively engaging physical activities can enhance aspects of executive functioning in primary school children.
Martin Eubank, Dave Collins and Nick Smith
Beck’s (1976) theoretical account of emotional vulnerability predicts that individuals who are vulnerable to anxiety will exhibit a cognitive processing bias for the threatening interpretation of ambiguous information. As anxiety direction (Jones, 1995) may best account for individual differences, the aim of this study was to establish whether such processing bias is a function of anxiety interpretation. Anxiety facilitators and debilitators underwent a modified Stroop test by reacting to neutral and ambiguous word types in neutral, positive, and negative mood conditions. A significant 3-way interaction, F(4, 60) = 3.02, p < .05, was evident, with the reaction time of facilitators being slowest for ambiguous words in the positive mood condition and debilitators being slowest for ambiguous words in the negative mood condition. The findings illustrate the important role that anxiety interpretation plays in the mechanism involved in the processing of ambiguous information.
Brandon L. Alderman, Ryan L. Olson and Diana M. Mattina
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of walking at self-selected speed on an active workstation on cognitive performance.
Sixty-six participants (n = 27 males, 39 females; mean age = 21.06 ± 1.6 years) completed a treadmill-desk walking and a seated control condition, separated by 48 hours. During each condition, participants completed computerized versions of the Stroop test, a modified flanker task, and a test of reading comprehension.
No significant differences in response speed or accuracy were found between walking and sitting conditions for any the cognitive tests.
These findings reveal that performance on cognitive tasks, including executive control processes, are not impaired by walking on an active workstation. Implementing active workstations into offices and classrooms may help to decrease sedentariness without impairing task performance.
Martin Eubank, Dave Collins and Nick Smith
In the presence of anxiety, threatening stimuli are allocated greater processing priority by high-trait-anxious individuals (Mathews, 1993). As anxiety direction (Jones, 1995) might best account for individual differences, this investigation aimed to establish whether or not such processing priority is a function of anxiety interpretation. Anxiety facilitators and debilitators performed a modified Stroop test (Stroop, 1935) by reacting to neutral, positive, and negative word types in neutral, positive, and negative mood conditions. A significant 3-way interaction, F(4,80) = 3.95, p < .05, was evident, with facilitators exhibiting a processing bias toward positive words in positive mood conditions. The data support the contention that anxiety interpretation is an important distinguishing variable in accounting for processing bias and support the potential contribution of cognitive restructuring practices to athletic performance.
Liam Johnson, Patricia K. Addamo, Isaac Selva Raj, Erika Borkoles, Victoria Wyckelsma, Elizabeth Cyarto and Remco C. Polman
There is evidence that an acute bout of exercise confers cognitive benefits, but it is largely unknown what the optimal mode and duration of exercise is and how cognitive performance changes over time after exercise. We compared the cognitive performance of 31 older adults using the Stroop test before, immediately after, and at 30 and 60 min after a 10 and 30 min aerobic or resistance exercise session. Heart rate and feelings of arousal were also measured before, during, and after exercise. We found that, independent of mode or duration of exercise, the participants improved in the Stroop Inhibition task immediately postexercise. We did not find that exercise influenced the performance of the Stroop Color or Stroop Word Interference tasks. Our findings suggest that an acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive performance and, in particular, the more complex executive functioning of older adults.