The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of sport management students during an experiential learning trip to Super Bowl XLVII in New Orleans, LA. A secondary purpose of the study was to explore and describe why students were motivated to participate in the trip. The study draws from theories of student and volunteer motivation. A qualitative approach was employed using ethnography that detailed the accounts of 11 students and 2 professors from James Madison University who volunteered to work events surrounding the Super Bowl. The findings revealed three themes: learning, career empowerment, and on-site preparation. This type of experiential trip can be replicated by other sport management educators and the findings can assist in further developing the literature on experiential learning.
Joshua R. Pate and David J. Shonk
Michael Olejniczak and Thomas J. Aicher
The sponsorship landscape has become increasingly cluttered, making it difficult for brands to stand out amongst ubiquitous sponsors. The National Football League (NFL) and the NFL Super Bowl have exemplified the marketing opportunities, business potential, and sponsorship challenges present in large-scale sporting events. In this case study, we present a fictitious consumer packaged goods beverage company, Staz, and their sponsorship of the NFL Super Bowl. Through the case study, we outline the objectives Staz is attempting to attain through its partnership with the NFL Super Bowl, as well as the activities they employed at national, local and site specific levels. Throughout the case, we present challenges brought on by Staz’s competitors, shortfalls in Staz’s hospitality activities, and the under-utilization of social media during their Super Bowl sponsorship campaign. The reader’s goal is to recognize the activities Staz executed well, while idealizing solutions for the brand’s less effective activation efforts.
Douglas L. Mendenhall
In an introductory undergraduate media course, Super Bowl XLIX was used as a hands-on vehicle to introduce students to the discipline of mass-media research. From a week before and after Super Bowl XLIX, 269 original blog posts and 91 sets of appended comments from Web sites devoted to the Seattle Seahawks and New England Patriots were analyzed for significant differences using Diction 7.0, a common word-counting program that measures tone in dozens of ways. More than a dozen variations found in the blog messages are used to describe a “team tone” unique to Seahawks blogs and another unique to Patriots blogs. Some elements of these team tones are present across all messages, while others existed only before the game was played or arose only after New England’s dramatic win in the closing moments. Postgame variations include greater optimism in the tone of New England Patriots bloggers and greater hardship and denial in the tone of Seattle Seahawks bloggers. Results are discussed from the perspective of social-identity theory.
Roger Cooper and Tang Tang
The 2012 Super Bowl was the most-watched television program in U.S. history and represented a wide-scale expansion to online and digital environments. This case study examined the role of gender in explanations for viewing the Super Bowl and for simultaneous media uses during the game. Results indicate that both men and women still relied on the traditional television for Super Bowl viewing. Newer media were used as a second-screen experience to complement the telecast or to gain additional information and social interaction. Gender differences underlie explanations for watching the Super Bowl on television and for simultaneous media uses. Findings suggest that women engaged with nonfootball elements that propel the Super Bowl from a sporting event to a societal event, whereas men indicated stronger interests in the game itself.
Scott W. Kelley and L. W. Turley
The Super Bowl television broadcast is the premier sports viewing spectacle each year. Although large sums of advertising dollars are spent on the production and placement of Super Bowl advertisements, little is known about the content of these advertisements and the level of affect associated with various aspects of the content of Super Bowl advertisements. This study explores the content of commercials shown during the 1996-2002 Super Bowls and uses USA Today Ad Meter scores as a dependent variable. Content analysis is used to analyze the data along with follow-up analyses investigating the relationships among advertising content and affect toward the advertisement. The findings suggest that higher levels of affect are associated with advertising goods rather than services in Super Bowl advertisements, and strategies include the following: using emotional appeals, avoiding straight announcements as a message format, including animals, and not making quality claims.
Norm O’Reilly, Mark Lyberger, Larry McCarthy, Benoît Séguin, and John Nadeau
Mega-special-event properties (sponsees) have the ability to attain significant resources through sponsorship by offering exclusive promotional opportunities that target sizeable consumer markets and attract sponsors. The Super Bowl, one of the most watched television programs in the world, was selected as the mega-special-event for this study as it provides a rare environment where a portion of the television audience tunes in specifically for the purpose of watching new and entertaining commercials. A longitudinal analysis of consumer opinion related to the 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006 Super Bowls provides empirical evidence that questions the ability of Super Bowl sponsorship to influence the sales of sponsor offerings. Results pertaining to consumers’ intent to purchase sponsors’ products—one of the most sought after metrics in relating sponsorship effectiveness to sales—demonstrate that levels of intent-to-purchase inspired by sponsorship of the Super Bowl is relatively low and, most importantly, that increases are not being achieved over time. These findings have implications for both mega-sponsees and their sponsors as well as media enterprise diffusing mega-special-events.
Mary G. McDonald
Nola Agha and Marijke Taks
. Because mega events generally assume a large area of impact, we hypothesize most resident geographic spending shifts will be within the host region (i.e., In-In) and thus subject to the variable impacts presented in Table 3 . Study Context Super Bowl 50, the 2016 championship game for the National
Lawrence A. Wenner
This case study examines the context of and reaction to the uncovering of singer Janet Jackson’s breast during the broadcast of the 2004 Super Bowl halftime show. Using a select thick reading of the event and its coverage, the analysis focuses on: a) the construction of the event by its organizational stakeholders, b) the reconstruction of understandings about how the fiasco came to be and what really happened and should have happened, and c) the deconstruction of the event by critics and those in the political environment who had reason to consider the incident and the response to it in a broader social context. Strategies for change and the prospects for “ethical health” in the sport marketplace are considered, with special attention given to promotional communication and crisis management.
Jong Woo Jun and Hyung Min Lee
In 2006, Hines Ward, a Korean-American athlete, was at the center of the media spotlights and became a national celebrity in South Korea after he was named the Most Valuable Player of Super Bowl XL. This paper examines the role of local journalists as cultural intermediaries and the repercussions of the mass-mediated identity of Hines Ward created and reproduced in the media. In light of the globalization of sport, this case study increases our understanding of how the globalization of sport has influenced and transformed the ways in which national identity is defined and conceptualized and how identities of cross-national athletes are crafted, disseminated, and marketed by local cultural intermediaries, particularly journalists.