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Jennifer Dekker, Katlynne Nelson, Nigel Kurgan, Bareket Falk, Andrea Josse and Panagiota Klentrou

function is enhanced ( 2 , 28 ). Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) can influence bone metabolism both independently and dependently of the Wnt pathway. TGF-β has 3 different isotopes (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) that stimulate mineralization and osteogenesis independent of the Wnt pathway ( 29 , 32 , 33

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Farnoosh Mafi, Soheil Biglari, Alireza Ghardashi Afousi and Abbas Ali Gaeini

To investigate the effects of resistance training and epicatechin supplementation on muscle strength, follistatin, and myostatin in older adults with sarcopenia, a total of 62 males with sarcopenia (68.63 ± 2.86 years) underwent a supervised 8-week randomized controlled trial. Participants were divided into resistance training (RT), epicatechin (EP), resistance training+epicatechin (RT+EP), and placebo (PL) in a double-blind method. A pretest and posttest measurement was conducted. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze between-group differences. The significantly greatest increase was observed in follistatin, follistatin/myostatin ratio, leg press, and chest press in RT+EP comparing RT, EP, and PL groups, whereas myostatin decreased significantly only in RT+EP and RT groups. However, appendicular muscle mass index and timed up and go test were enhanced significantly in all experimental groups than the PL group (p ≤ .05). Consequently, by comparing the results between three experimental groups, the greatest improvement was detected in the RT+EP group. Therefore, using two interventions simultaneously seems to have a better impact on improving muscle growth factors and preventing the progression of sarcopenia.

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Takeshi Kokubo, Yuta Komano, Ryohei Tsuji, Daisuke Fujiwara, Toshio Fujii and Osamu Kanauchi

-Plasma after physical damage from a single exercise session in a treadmill model. In particular, we evaluated the feeling of fatigue and the relationship between spontaneous motor activity and changes in serum transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), an objective fatigue marker. We also evaluated the muscle

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Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse and Lindsy Kass

.35 g/kg) Route: oral gavage (13 days preinjury and 10 days postinjury) Control: oral saline gavage Follow-up: 10 days Prevention of reduction in prefatigued tetanic strength (however, not sustained during fatigue protocol) ↓ Expression of phosphorylated TGF-β receptor Type I at Day 10 ( p  < .05

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Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

18580401 27. Rosa L , Teixeira A , Lira F , Tufik S , Mello M , Santos R . Moderate acute exercise (70% VO2 peak) induces TGF-β, α-amylase and IgA in saliva during recovery . Oral Dis . 2014 ; 20 ( 2 ): 186 – 190 . doi:10.1111/odi.12088 10.1111/odi.12088 23464508 28. Sari-Sarraf V

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Gabriella Berwig Möller, Maria Júlia Vieira da Cunha Goulart, Bruna Bellincanta Nicoletto, Fernanda Donner Alves and Cláudia Dornelles Schneider

(leukocyte count, TGF-β, IL-10, and IFN-γ); and sport performance Lower duration ( p  = .047), number of symptoms per episodes ( p  = .035), and number of infected days ( p  < .001) of respiratory events. There were no differences in immunity and inflammatory parameters and exercise performance Amateur