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Examining Rater Effects of the TGMD-2 on Children With Intellectual Disability

Youngdeok Kim, Ilhyeok Park, and Minsoo Kang

The purpose of this study was to investigate rater effects on the TGMD-2 when it applied to children with intellectual disability. A total of 22 children with intellectual disabilities participated in this study. Children’s performances in each of 12 subtests of the TGMD-2 were recorded via video and scored by three adapted physical activity specialists who have expertise in the TGMD-2. Two advanced measurement theories, Generalizability-theory (G-theory) and many-facet Rasch model (MFRM), were applied in data analyses. There were relatively large variances attributed to rater effects on the scores of the TGMD-2 awarded to children with intellectual disabilities. The severity of each rater significantly differed across all subtests of the TGMD-2. There was a set of biased ratings interacted with measurement conditions of the TGMD-2.

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TGMD-2 Short Version: Evidence of Validity and Associations With Sex, Age, and BMI in Preschool Children

Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Michael Duncan, Maria Luiza Pessoa, Ívina Soares, Larissa da Silva, Jorge Mota, and Clarice Martins

contexts, such as in Brazil, low-income children may have “poorer” structured and/or unstructured motor opportunities ( Nobre, Bandeira, & Valentini, 2016 ). Subsequently, this limited exposure can subsequently impact their motor development. The Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2

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Inter- and Intrarater Reliabilities of the Test of Gross Motor Development—Third Edition Among Experienced TGMD-2 Raters

Hyokju Maeng, E. Kipling Webster, E. Andrew Pitchford, and Dale A. Ulrich

TGMD-2; and (c) experience teaching physical education, adapted physical education, or physical activity for children of at least 2 years. All five raters satisfied these requirements to participate in the study. Instrument The TGMD-3 ( Ulrich, in press ) measures gross FMS performance of children aged

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Reliability and Validity of the TGMD-2 in Primary-School-Age Children With Visual Impairments

Suzanne Houwen, Esther Hartman, Laura Jonker, and Chris Visscher

This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal consistency of the TGMD-2 was found to be high (alpha = 0.71−0.72) and the interrater, intrarater, and test-retest reliability acceptable (ICCs ranging from 0.82 to 0.95). The results of the factor analysis supported internal test structure and significant age and sex effects were observed. Finally, the scores on the object control subtest of the TGMD-2 and the ball skills subtest of the Movement ABC correlated moderately to high (r = 0.45 to r = 0.80). Based on the current results, it is concluded that the TGMD-2 is an appropriate tool to assess the gross motor skills of primary-school-age children with VI.

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The Effect of Visual Supports on Performance of the TGMD-2 for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Casey M. Breslin and Mary E. Rudisill

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of visual supports on the performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants (N = 22) performed the TGMD-2 under three different protocols (traditional protocol, picture task card protocol, and picture activity schedule protocol). Gross motor quotient scores on the TGMD-2 were measured and statistically analyzed using a within-subjects repeated-measures ANOVA. Results indicated statistically significant differences between protocols, while post hoc tests indicated that the picture task card condition produced significantly higher gross motor quotient scores than the traditional protocol and the picture activity schedule. The results suggest that more accurate gross motor quotient scores on the TGMD-2 by children with ASD can be elicited using the picture task card protocol.

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Validity and Reliability of the TGMD-2 in 7–10-Year-Old Flemish Children with Intellectual Disability

Johan Simons, Daniel Daly, Fani Theodorou, Cindy Caron, Joke Simons, and Elena Andoniadou

The purpose of this study was to assess validity and reliability of the TGMD-2 on Flemish children with intellectual disability. The total sample consisted of 99 children aged 7-10 years of which 67 were boys and 32 were girls. A factor analysis supported a two factor model of the TGMD-2. A low significant age effect was also found for the object control skill but not for locomotor ability. Furthermore, a significant difference was observed between the results of the children of the United States without intellectual disability and Flemish children with mild intellectual disability.

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Hybrid Program Based on Virtual and Real Games Increases Fundamental Movement Skills in Children With Intellectual Disability: A Quasi-Experimental Study

Ghada Regaieg, Sonia Sahli, and Gilles Kermarrec

. Instrumentation Child’s FMS proficiency was evaluated using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2; Ulrich, 2000 ). The TGMD-2 requires a variety of equipment, including cones, masking tape, 4–5″ beanbags, plastic bat, Nerf ball, batting tee, 8–10″ plastic playground ball or soccer ball, 4″ plastic ball

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Comparability of the Test of Gross Motor Development–Second Edition and the Test of Gross Motor Development–Third Edition

Stephanie C. Field, Christina B. Esposito Bosma, and Viviene A. Temple

The Test of Gross Motor Development–Second Edition (TGMD-2; Ulrich, 2000 ) has been one of the most widely used process-orientated measures of motor skill proficiency, with more than 1,000 citations in the international literature since it was published. Attaching meaning to raw TGMD-2 scores has

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Psychometric Properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 for Children With Visual Impairments

Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley, and Sara Santarossa

normative sample for the TGMD and created the TGMD-2. In addition, Ulrich removed the skip from the locomotor subscale and added the underhand roll to the object control subscale for the TGMD-2. The TGMD-2 is a normative and criterion-referenced assessment for children aged 3 years to 10 years, 11 months

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Actual and Perceived Motor Competence Levels of Belgian and United States Preschool Children

Ali Brian, Farid Bardid, Lisa M. Barnett, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Matthieu Lenoir, and Jacqueline D. Goodway

during throw). Depending upon the geographical region, process-oriented or product-oriented measures may be more prevalent. For instance, process-oriented assessments such as the Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd Edition (TGMD-2; Ulrich, 2000 ) are typically used in the United States (US) while