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Gashaw Abeza, Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove, Benoit Séguin, Norm O’Reilly, Ari Kim, and Yann Abdourazakou

, but such tactics are often employed by the rival companies or DICs of the official sponsors in the same product category ( Farrelly et al., 2005 ; Nufer, 2013 ; Wolfsteiner et al., 2015 ). Therefore, in this study, the DICs or rivals of the TOP sponsors are considered, which builds on the categories

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Gennaro Boccia, Marco Cardinale, and Paolo Riccardo Brustio

athletes were top 20 ranked both in youth (Under 15) and senior (U20) competitions. 5 A similar pattern was observed in the Italian national rankings where only ∼24% and 38% of male and female athletes, respectively, were considered top-level athletes both during their youth (age range: 14–17 y) and

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Teun van Erp, Robert P. Lamberts, and Dajo Sanders

and van Erp and Sanders 9 showed that relatively shorter duration power outputs (ie, <5 min) seemed to be the main differentiator between a top 10 and a nontop 10 result. Although these studies provided valuable insight, no differentiation was made based on race type (eg, flat races vs a race with a

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Douglas A. Pizac, Charles B. Swanik, Joseph J. Glutting, and Thomas W. Kaminski

sprains than taping. 22 For many years, basketball players have been wearing basketball shoes that extend above the malleoli of the ankle, coined a “high-top” shoe. Recently, this high-top design has grown popular within football, especially by lineman requiring an extensive amount of stability to perform

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Gabriel Barreto, Luana Farias de Oliveira, Tiemi Saito, Rafael Klosterhoff, Pedro Perim, Eimear Dolan, Rosa Maria R. Pereira, Patrícia Campos-Ferraz, Fernanda R. Lima, and Bryan Saunders

particular risk for long-term low EA 8 , 9 and, as such, adequate energy (and nutrient) intake is essential to protect the health and performance of top-level female cyclists. Cycling is becoming increasingly popular in Brazil, with the Brazilian Cycling Confederation calendar containing 44 elite female

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Jacopo A. Vitale, Giuseppe Banfi, Andrea Galbiati, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, and Antonio La Torre

objectively study sleep/wake parameters, but it is not commonly used with top-level athletes because of the expensive equipment and because it is not easily portable; conversely, wrist activity monitors are valid and simple tools to study sleep with minimal effort on behalf of the athlete. 11 The aim of the

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Thorben Hülsdünker, Clara Rentz, Diemo Ruhnow, Hannes Käsbauer, Heiko K. Strüder, and Andreas Mierau

coaches evaluate the suitability of stroboscopic eyewear for individual athletes. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of stroboscopic training for top-level athletes and identify the potential underlying neurophysiologic mechanisms during 4-week visuomotor training using shutter glasses. The

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Gregory S. Rash, Joey Garrett, and Michelle Voisin

Six of the top 10 American female 100-meter hurdlers were analyzed for biomechanical factors. This was accomplished by using three 16mm Locam high-speed cameras operating at 100/fps. The first five strides out of the blocks and the strides prior to, over, and after the fourth hurdle were analyzed for kinematic parameters. Stride lengths, support times, and nonsupport times were measured out of the blocks and about the fourth hurdle. Additional information concerning the knee angle of the lead leg at ground contact and the distance between the whole body center of gravity (WBCG) and the center of gravity (CG) of the lead leg’s foot at ground contact were also analyzed about the fourth hurdle. Generally, the women who were in the air the shortest amount of time for the first two strides out of the blocks obtained the greatest velocity in the first five strides. Also, the results of this study indicate that it may not be a question of needing to flex the knee of the lead leg coming off the hurdle to decrease horizontal braking, but the ability to get the WBCG over or in front of the CG of the lead leg foot.

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Marlene A. Dixon and Jennifer E. Bruening

As numerous qualified women exit the workforce because of the challenges of balancing work and family, investigations of the work–family interface have become increasingly important. Research has indicated how multilevel factors (i.e., individual, organizational, and sociocultural) play a role in work–family conflict. Little research has examined these factors in relation to each other, however. In sport management, Dixon and Bruening (2005) argued that higher level factors (sociocultural and organizational) shape and constrain lower level behaviors (organizational and individual), which ultimately influence the perception and consequences of work–family conflict. The primary purpose of this investigation is to test and further develop Dixon and Bruening’s multilevel framework. The current study used online focus groups for data collection from 41 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female head coaches with children to examine the factors that impacted work–family conflict from a top-down perspective. The results illuminated the experiences of the coaching mothers and the factors that affected their job and life satisfaction at each of the three levels. Particular attention was paid to how higher level factors such as work climate and culture shaped and constrained lower level attitudes and behaviors such as individual conflict and time management. These relationships highlighted how individual attitudes and behaviors reflect larger structural and social forces at work, and not simply individual choices.

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Albert G. Yee and C. Daniel Mote Jr

The purpose of this study was to identify regression models to predict moments at the boot top and knee from the force components at the bindings for a sample of skiers. Six subjects skied a slalom course, first with their boots set to the least stiff setting and then with their boots set to the most stiff setting. Six load component dynamometers measured force and moment components at the toe and heel bindings. An electrogoniometer measured ankle flexion. Regression models were developed for the subject sample that predicted quasi-static moment components at the boot top and knee from measurements of ankle flexion and the quasi-static force components at the bindings. Large anterior bending moment was not necessarily accompanied by large ankle flexion, which emphasized that binding designs and standards for injury prevention must account for forces and moments at the sites of potential injury, rather than limiting consideration to boot stiffness or forces at the bindings.