, but such tactics are often employed by the rival companies or DICs of the official sponsors in the same product category ( Farrelly et al., 2005 ; Nufer, 2013 ; Wolfsteiner et al., 2015 ). Therefore, in this study, the DICs or rivals of the TOP sponsors are considered, which builds on the categories
Gashaw Abeza, Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove, Benoit Séguin, Norm O’Reilly, Ari Kim and Yann Abdourazakou
Douglas A. Pizac, Charles B. Swanik, Joseph J. Glutting and Thomas W. Kaminski
sprains than taping. 22 For many years, basketball players have been wearing basketball shoes that extend above the malleoli of the ankle, coined a “high-top” shoe. Recently, this high-top design has grown popular within football, especially by lineman requiring an extensive amount of stability to perform
Jacopo A. Vitale, Giuseppe Banfi, Andrea Galbiati, Luigi Ferini-Strambi and Antonio La Torre
objectively study sleep/wake parameters, but it is not commonly used with top-level athletes because of the expensive equipment and because it is not easily portable; conversely, wrist activity monitors are valid and simple tools to study sleep with minimal effort on behalf of the athlete. 11 The aim of the
Thorben Hülsdünker, Clara Rentz, Diemo Ruhnow, Hannes Käsbauer, Heiko K. Strüder and Andreas Mierau
coaches evaluate the suitability of stroboscopic eyewear for individual athletes. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of stroboscopic training for top-level athletes and identify the potential underlying neurophysiologic mechanisms during 4-week visuomotor training using shutter glasses. The
Gregory S. Rash, Joey Garrett and Michelle Voisin
Six of the top 10 American female 100-meter hurdlers were analyzed for biomechanical factors. This was accomplished by using three 16mm Locam high-speed cameras operating at 100/fps. The first five strides out of the blocks and the strides prior to, over, and after the fourth hurdle were analyzed for kinematic parameters. Stride lengths, support times, and nonsupport times were measured out of the blocks and about the fourth hurdle. Additional information concerning the knee angle of the lead leg at ground contact and the distance between the whole body center of gravity (WBCG) and the center of gravity (CG) of the lead leg’s foot at ground contact were also analyzed about the fourth hurdle. Generally, the women who were in the air the shortest amount of time for the first two strides out of the blocks obtained the greatest velocity in the first five strides. Also, the results of this study indicate that it may not be a question of needing to flex the knee of the lead leg coming off the hurdle to decrease horizontal braking, but the ability to get the WBCG over or in front of the CG of the lead leg foot.
Marlene A. Dixon and Jennifer E. Bruening
As numerous qualified women exit the workforce because of the challenges of balancing work and family, investigations of the work–family interface have become increasingly important. Research has indicated how multilevel factors (i.e., individual, organizational, and sociocultural) play a role in work–family conflict. Little research has examined these factors in relation to each other, however. In sport management, Dixon and Bruening (2005) argued that higher level factors (sociocultural and organizational) shape and constrain lower level behaviors (organizational and individual), which ultimately influence the perception and consequences of work–family conflict. The primary purpose of this investigation is to test and further develop Dixon and Bruening’s multilevel framework. The current study used online focus groups for data collection from 41 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female head coaches with children to examine the factors that impacted work–family conflict from a top-down perspective. The results illuminated the experiences of the coaching mothers and the factors that affected their job and life satisfaction at each of the three levels. Particular attention was paid to how higher level factors such as work climate and culture shaped and constrained lower level attitudes and behaviors such as individual conflict and time management. These relationships highlighted how individual attitudes and behaviors reflect larger structural and social forces at work, and not simply individual choices.
Albert G. Yee and C. Daniel Mote Jr
The purpose of this study was to identify regression models to predict moments at the boot top and knee from the force components at the bindings for a sample of skiers. Six subjects skied a slalom course, first with their boots set to the least stiff setting and then with their boots set to the most stiff setting. Six load component dynamometers measured force and moment components at the toe and heel bindings. An electrogoniometer measured ankle flexion. Regression models were developed for the subject sample that predicted quasi-static moment components at the boot top and knee from measurements of ankle flexion and the quasi-static force components at the bindings. Large anterior bending moment was not necessarily accompanied by large ankle flexion, which emphasized that binding designs and standards for injury prevention must account for forces and moments at the sites of potential injury, rather than limiting consideration to boot stiffness or forces at the bindings.
Mette Krogh Christensen
The purpose of this study is to explore how top-level soccer coaches identify talent. I draw on Bourdieu’s work to challenge a commonly held assumption that talent identification is a rational or objective process. Analysis of in-depth interviews with eight coaches of national youth soccer teams indicated these coaches identified talent in three ways. First, coaches use their practical sense and their visual experience to recognize patterns of movement among the players. Second, the coaches’ classificatory schemes are characterized by their preference for so-called “autotelic” players, that is, players that, from the coaches’ perspective, exhibit a potential to learn, practice, and improve. Third, the study shows that talent, of which the coaches act as arbiters of taste, is socially configured in top-level soccer.
Anna E. Price, Sara J. Corwin, Daniela B. Friedman, Sarah B. Laditka, Natalie Colabianchi and Kara M. Montgomery
Physical activity may promote cognitive health in older adults. Popular media play an important role in preventive health communication. This study examined articles discussing associations between physical activity and cognitive health in top-circulating magazines targeting older adults. 42,753 pages of magazines published from 2006 to 2008 were reviewed; 26 articles met inclusion criteria. Explanations regarding the link between physical activity and cognitive health were provided in 57.7% of articles. These explanations were generally consistent with empirical evidence; however, few articles included empirical evidence. Physical activity recommendations were presented in 80.8% of articles; a wide range was recommended (90–300 min of physical activity per wk). Socioeconomic status and education level were not mentioned in the text. Results suggest an opportunity for greater coverage regarding the role of physical activity in promoting cognitive health in popular media. Magazine content would benefit from including more empirical evidence, culturally sensitive content, and physical activity recommendations that are consistent with U.S. guidelines.
František Man, Iva Stuchlíková and Pavel Kindlmann
Spielberger’s trait-state anxiety theory suggests that persons high in trait anxiety have a greater tendency to perceive an ego-involving situation as threatening, and hence, they are expected to respond to this situation with elevated state anxiety (A-state). To test this hypothesis measurements of A-trait (low vs. high) as a between-subjects factor, measurements of stress level (low vs. high) as a within-subjects factor, and measurements of state anxiety, cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, self-confidence, and cognitive interference as dependent variables were made on 45 top-level soccer players. Statistical analysis revealed a significant person-situation interaction only in self-confidence. The lack of sensitivity in the state anxiety scores can be ascribed to the fact that soccer players play important games regularly and so become desensitized to precompetitive anxiety responses. A subsequent multiple regression analysis showed that task irrelevant cognitions are correlated only with cognitive anxiety and not with either self-confidence or somatic anxiety.