contributions to the field. Thus, I take this opportunity to highlight his perspectives and insights into somatic education. I also take this opportunity to show the relationship of Hanna’s approach to Eastern “schools” of movement, especially Tai Chi, and present a short summary of research findings on the art
The Somatic Work of Thomas Hanna, Tai Chi, and Kinesiology
Bradford C. Bennett
Tai Chi Enhances Self-Efficacy and Exercise Behavior in Older Adults
Fuzhong Li, Edward McAuley, Peter Harmer, Terry E. Duncan, and Nigel R. Chaumeton
The article describes a randomized, controlled trial conducted to examine the effects of a Tai Chi intervention program on perceptions of personal efficacy and exercise behavior in older adults. The sample comprised 94 low-active, healthy participants (mean age = 72.8 years. SD = 5.1) randomly assigned to either an experimental (Tai Chi) group or a wait-list control group. The study length was 6 months, with self-efficacy responses (barrier, performance efficacies) assessed at baseline, at Week 12, and at termination (Week 24) of the study. Exercise attendance was recorded as an outcome measure of exercise behavior. Random-effects models revealed that participants in the experimental group experienced significant improvements in self-efficacy over the course of the intervention. Subsequent repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that participants’ changes in efficacy were associated with higher levels of program attendance. The findings suggest that self-efficacy can be enhanced through Tai Chi and that the changes in self-efficacy are likely to improve exercise adherence.
Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance—Development of a Community-Based Falls Prevention Program
Fuzhong Li, Peter Harmer, Karin A. Mack, David Sleet, K. John Fisher, Melvin A. Kohn, Lisa M. Millet, Junheng Xu, Tingzhong Yang, Beth Sutton, and Yvaughn Tompkins
This study was designed to develop an evidence- and community-based falls prevention program—Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance.
A mixed qualitative and quantitative approach was used to develop a package of materials for program implementation and evaluation. The developmental work was conducted in 2 communities in the Pacific Northwest. Participants included a panel of experts, senior service program managers or activity coordinators, and older adults. Outcome measures involved program feasibility and satisfaction.
Through an iterative process, a program package was developed. The package contained an implementation plan and class training materials (ie, instructor’s manual, videotape, and user’s guidebook). Pilot testing of program materials showed that the content was appropriate for the targeted users (community-living older adults) and providers (local senior service organizations). A feasibility survey indicated interest and support from users and providers for program implementation. A 2-week pilot evaluation showed that the program implementation was feasible and evidenced good class attendance, high participant satisfaction, and interest in continuing Tai Chi.
The package of materials developed in this study provides a solid foundation for larger scale implementation and evaluation of the program in community settings.
Taoist Tai Chi® and Memory Intervention for Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment
Jennifer N. Fogarty, Kelly J. Murphy, Bruce McFarlane, Manuel Montero-Odasso, Jennie Wells, Angela K. Troyer, Daniel Trinh, Iris Gutmanis, and Kevin T. Hansen
It was hypothesized that a combined Taoist Tai Chi (TTC) and a memory intervention program (MIP) would be superior to a MIP alone in improving everyday memory behaviors in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A secondary hypothesis was that TTC would improve cognition, self-reported health status, gait, and balance.
A total of 48 individuals were randomly assigned to take part in MIP + TTC or MIP alone. The TTC intervention consisted of twenty 90 min sessions. Outcome measures were given at baseline, and after 10 and 22 weeks.
Both groups significantly increased their memory strategy knowledge and use, ratings of physical health, processing speed, everyday memory, and visual attention. No preferential benefit was found for individuals in the MIP + TTC group on cognition, gait, or balance measures.
Contrary to expectations, TTC exercise did not specifically improve cognition or physical mobility. Explanations for null findings are explored.
Tai Chi for the Prevention of Falls Among Older Adults: A Critical Analysis of the Evidence
Samuel R. Nyman
interventions for populations at risk of falls and may well be more acceptable and cost effective ( Campbell & Robertson, 2007 ). In this context, Tai Chi has been researched as a strategy with great potential for preventing falls among older adults ( Nyman & Skelton, 2017 ). Tai Chi has been practiced widely
Effectiveness of Tai Chi on Balance Improvement in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Stefano Palermi, Anna M. Sacco, Immacolata Belviso, Nastasia Marino, Francesco Gambardella, Carlo Loiacono, and Felice Sirico
DM. In the management of this health care criticism, some preventive approaches have received medical attention due to a growing number of evidence in favor of their effectiveness, like the practice of Tai Chi ( Hakim, Kotroba, Cours, Teel, & Leininger, 2010 ). Tai Chi is an ancient Chinese practice
Effects of 12 Weeks of Tai Chi Intervention in Patients With Chronic Ankle Instability: A Randomized Controlled Trial
David Cruz-Díaz, Kyung-Min Kim, Fidel Hita-Contreras, Marco Bergamin, Agustin Aibar-Almazán, and Antonio Martínez-Amat
on balance seems to be superior to other interventions in improving self-reported function in patients with CAI. Tai Chi is widely spread all over the world, and its benefits on postural balance and lower-extremity strength are supported by several studies. 13 , 14 There is a broad consensus among
Tai Chi Is Safe and Effective for the Hip Joint: A Biomechanical Perspective
Jianwei Duan, Kuan Wang, Tongbo Chang, Lejun Wang, Shengnian Zhang, and Wenxin Niu
Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese exercise ( Xu, Hong, Li, & Chan, 2004 ), which can not only improve balance and fear of falling in older adults ( Logghe et al., 2010 ) but also enhance the lower limb muscle strength in older adults ( Liu, Liu, Zhu, Mo, & Cheng, 2011 ). In addition, Tai Chi can
Virtual Special Issue: Tai Chi
Samuel R. Nyman
Tai Chi is an ancient Chinese form of exercise that has been practiced for at least hundreds of years. It is a slow, gentle, fluid form of exercise that is accessible for people of all ages and abilities. Further, it is a mind–body exercise, in that the physical movements of patterns with the arms
Effects of Tai Chi on Cerebral Hemodynamics and Health-Related Outcomes in Older Community Adults at Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Guohua Zheng, Xin Zheng, Junzhe Li, Tingjin Duan, Kun Ling, Jing Tao, and Lidian Chen
( Eckel et al., 2014 ; Haskell, Lee, Pate, Powell, & Blair, 2007 ). However, less than 50% of adults, in particular older adults aged55 years and older, achieve this recommendation, despite the broad recognition of its benefits ( Kernan et al., 2014 ). Tai Chi, as a traditional Chinese mind–body exercise