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Covering the Scandal in 140 Characters: A Case Study of Twitter’s Role in Coverage of the Penn State Saga

Jimmy Sanderson and Marion E. Hambrick

This case study explored how sports journalists used Twitter to cover allegations about former Penn State University assistant football coach Jerry Sandusky sexually abusing young boys. A content analysis of 1652 tweets from 151 sports journalists was conducted. Analysis revealed that sports journalists used Twitter in the following ways: a) offering commentary, b) breaking news, c) interactivity, d) linking to content, and e) promotion. The results suggest that Twitter serves as an additional venue for sports journalists to frame stories; however, their behavior in this venue blurs professional and personal boundaries as they mock fans and promote their competitors. The analysis further suggests that the immediacy with which news breaks on Twitter places sports journalists and sports media organizations into a dialectic between “being first” and “being accurate” when reporting news.

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From the Physical to the Social: Twitter as a Pedagogical Innovation in the Sport Communication and Sport Management Classroom

Jimmy Sanderson and Blair Browning

This essay discusses how Twitter can be used as a pedagogical tool for sport communication and sport management courses. Given the prevalence with which Twitter has penetrated the sport industry and the frequency with which college students use social media, Twitter is a complementary and viable classroom component. The essay provides ways in which Twitter can be used for formal assignments in the sport communication and sport management classroom. The essay concludes by discussing some challenges to using Twitter in the classroom, describing strategies for overcoming these barriers, and encouraging sport communication and sport management educators to embrace the culture of convergence that Twitter affords. The appendix offers detailed guidelines for the assignments discussed in the essay.

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Consumer Interest in Major League Baseball: An Analytical Modeling of Twitter

Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, and Brian P. Soebbing

Understanding how consumers interact with sport brands on digital platforms is of increasing importance to the sport industry. In this study, through a nexus of consumer behavior and economic literatures, the examination focuses on consumer interest in major league baseball teams on social media platforms from July 2013 to June 2014. Specifically, two generalized least squares regression models were used that considered a variety of factors, including market characteristics, scheduling, and social media use and management. The findings display varying results of short- and long-term consumer interest in teams on Twitter. From this, important theoretical and practical understanding can be derived by considering consumer behavior in the automated “like economy” of social media.

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Identifying the Different Approaches in Use of Social Media Outlets: A Case Study of German Professional Sport Teams

Fabian Kautz, Michael Schaffrath, and Alex C. Gang

and their ability to connect the teams with the fans. For example, Real Madrid has 110 million followers on their Facebook page, while the Los Angeles Lakers have 21 million followers, and the Golden State Warriors have 6.4 million followers on Twitter (as of December 20, 2019). In addition, when the

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Using Artificial Intelligence to Detect the Relationship Between Social Media Sentiment and Season Ticket Purchases

Nels Popp, James Du, Stephen L. Shapiro, and Jason M. Simmons

) and Major League Baseball ( Cupo, 2020 ) found no relationship between growth in number of social followers and game attendance or ticket revenue, while Merkle et al. ( 2020 ) suggested consumer Twitter usage seems to be a positive mediator of television viewership for sporting events, but not live

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Social Media as a Tool for Understanding the Role of Motor Differences in Neurodivergent Identity and Lived Experience

Haylie L. Miller

needs. Although the social media platform Twitter has made archived data available to academic researchers since 2006, prior studies using these data have centered predominantly on sociopolitical issues. There was not an established best-practice pipeline for motor development and behavior researchers

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Reading, Watching, and Tweeting About Sports: An Analysis of Sport-News Retention

Joseph H. Moore

U.S. adult population claims to follow sports, with television being the preferred medium. Thirty-five percent of sport fans consume sports via social media, and of those fans, Facebook is most commonly used at 70%, followed by YouTube (40%) and Twitter (24%). It is generally younger fans who

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Sport in the Age of Trump: An Analysis of Donald Trump’s Tweets

Evan Frederick, Ann Pegoraro, and Jimmy Sanderson

As president, Donald Trump was no stranger to controversial remarks on Twitter, which appears to be his medium of choice for shaping and amplifying his message ( Phillips, 2015 ). Since he began using Twitter, Trump has employed the social media platform as a vehicle for bolstering his public image

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Athletes as Advocates: Influencing Eating-Disorder Beliefs and Perceptions Through Social Media

Fallon R. Mitchell, Sara Santarossa, and Sarah J. Woodruff

demonstrated by Earvin “Magic” Johnson, who advocated for HIV/AIDS awareness, and Mark McGwire, who spoke out against child abuse ( Brown, Basil, & Bocarnea, 2003 ). However, the means for advocacy has shifted from press conferences and television to social media sites such as Twitter and Facebook ( Guo

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From Gearshifts to Gigabytes: An Analysis of How NASCAR Used iRacing to Engage Fans During the COVID-19 Shutdown

Greg Greenhalgh and Chad Goebert

Invitational Series impact the reach and engagement of NASCAR on Twitter? RQ2 : To what extent did the iRacing Pro Invitational Series impact the ability of NASCAR to engage with Twitter followers of various ages? RQ3 : To what extent did the iRacing Pro Invitational Series impact fan sentiment towards NASCAR