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Alireza Esmaeili, Andrew M. Stewart, William G. Hopkins, George P. Elias and Robert J. Aughey


Detrimental changes in tendon structure increase the risk of tendinopathies. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of individual internal and external training loads and leg dominance on changes in the Achilles and patellar tendon structure.


The internal structure of the Achilles and patellar tendons of both limbs of 26 elite Australian footballers was assessed using ultrasound tissue characterization at the beginning and the end of an 18-wk preseason. Linear-regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of training load on changes in the proportion of aligned and intact tendon bundles for each side. Standardization and magnitude-based inferences were used to interpret the findings.


Possibly to very likely small increases in the proportion of aligned and intact tendon bundles occurred in the dominant Achilles (initial value 81.1%; change, ±90% confidence limits 1.6%, ±1.0%), nondominant Achilles (80.8%; 0.9%, ±1.0%), dominant patellar (75.8%; 1.5%, ±1.5%), and nondominant patellar (76.8%; 2.7%, ±1.4%) tendons. Measures of training load had inconsistent effects on changes in tendon structure; eg, there were possibly to likely small positive effects on the structure of the nondominant Achilles tendon, likely small negative effects on the dominant Achilles tendon, and predominantly no clear effects on the patellar tendons.


The small and inconsistent effects of training load are indicative of the role of recovery between tendon-overloading (training) sessions and the multivariate nature of the tendon response to load, with leg dominance a possible influencing factor.

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Robert J. de Vos, Marinus P. Heijboer, Harrie Weinans, Jan A.N. Verhaar and Hans T.M. van Schie


Chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy is a common and hard-to-treat disorder characterized by degenerative changes of the tendon matrix. Ultrasonographic tissue characterization (UTC) was successfully used to quantify structural human Achilles tendon changes. This novel and reliable technique could be used in follow-up studies to relate tendon structure to symptoms.


To quantify structural tendon changes and assess clinical change in patients with tendinopathy.


Prospective observational study.


Orthopedic department in a university medical center.


23 patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy.


The patients performed a 16-wk home-based eccentric exercise program. An experienced researcher performed the ultrasonographic data collection with the UTC procedure. These data were assessed by a blinded observer. The severity of symptoms was established with the validated Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment–Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire.

Main Outcome Measures:

UTC was performed to quantify tendon structure through measuring the proportion of 4 echo types. Echo types I and II represent more or less organized tendon bundles, and echo types III and IV represent disintegrated tendon structure. On the VISA-A, the total possible score is divided by 100 for a percentage score, with a perfect score of 100. Follow-up was at 2, 8, 16, and 24 wk.


The mean percentage of echo types I and II changed by 0.3% after 24 wk (P = .92, 95% CI −5.8 to 5.3). The mean VISA-A score increased slightly but significantly by 11.3 points after 24 wk (P = .01, 95% CI 2.6–20.0). An increased VISA-A score was not correlated with an increased percentage of echo types I and II (P = .94, r = −.02), and the baseline percentage of echo types I and II did not correlate with an increased VISA-A score (P = .74, r = .07).


There is no short-term increase in organized tendon structure after eccentric exercises. Tendon structure is not related to symptom severity and cannot be used as a predictor of clinical outcome.

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Guy C. Wilson, Yorgi Mavros, Lotti Tajouri and Maria Fiatarone Singh

vs. ID − 0.15 [ − 0.42, 0.12] ACE 10 10 DD / ID 7 0.87 Δ0.039 2 0.87 NR 0.06 ± −0.1 .15 UTC ACE II 27 0.87 Δ−0.063 25 0.87 NR −0.01 ± −0.2 UTC Buford et al. ( 2014 ) SPPB score (range 0–12) ACE II 28 7.5 Δ0.12 ± 0.32 25 7.5 Δ0.63 ± 0.35 −0.31 [−0.70, −0.32] .037 −0.31 [−0.86, −0.23] ACE ID 62 7.5 Δ1

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Iñigo Mujika

total of 64 games will be played over 32 days (June 14 to July 15, 2018) in 11 cities (Yekaterinburg, Kaliningrad, Kazan, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Rostov-on-Don, Saint Petersburg, Samara, Saransk, Sochi, and Volgograd), 12 stadiums, and across 4 time zones (UTC+2, UTC+3, UTC+4, and UTC+5) to decide the

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Chelsea Steel, Carolina Bejarano and Jordan A. Carlson

from the GPS satellites’ highly accurate atomic clocks and display a timestamp based on Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) ( Dana & Penrod, 1990 ). The widely used ( Cain, Sallis, Conway, Van Dyck, & Calhoon, 2013 ; Edwardson et al., 2017 ; John & Freedson, 2012 ) ActiGraph (ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL

Open access

Keith Baar

.01.2013.03 Docking , S.I. , & Cook , J. ( 2016 ). Pathological tendons maintain sufficient aligned fibrillar structure on ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) . Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 26 ( 6 ), 675 – 683 . PubMed ID: 26059532 doi:10.1111/sms.12491 10

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Ryan K. Zapalac, John J. Miller and Kelsey C. Miller

.d., Retrieved July 25, 2018 from . Copyright 2018 by Earthquake Track. Back to Business The cleanup of Raley Field took 10 hours to get the facility back to full operational status. Chukchansi Stadium, on the other hand, would be out of

Open access

Jairo H. Migueles, Alex V. Rowlands, Florian Huber, Séverine Sabia and Vincent T. van Hees

zone of the machine on which the analyses are run, or the default time zone assumed by GGIR (UTC: Europe/London). Part 2 (g.part2) As part of g.part2 function g.impute takes the milestone output from g.part1 , optionally identifies unreliable signal sections (e.g., monitor not worn or signal clips

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Orland Hoeber, Ryan Snelgrove, Larena Hoeber and Laura Wood

. Conducting this step with data from other sources may be challenging, depending on the data formats and the software used in the previous step. In the example above, the data were filtered to include only the tweets posted from the time of the crash (July 5, 2014 at 9:44 a.m. UTC+0) to 3 days after this

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Kenneth Färnqvist, Stephen Pearson and Peter Malliaras

expression of aggrecan and biglycan mRNA in Achilles tendinopathy . Rheumatology . 2006 ; 45 : 291 – 294 . doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kei152 16219640 42. Docking SI , Rosengarten SD , Cook J . Achilles tendon structure improves on UTC imaging over a 5-month pre-season in elite Australian football