% to 78%, and ∼85% to 87% for 200-, 500-, and 1000-m events, respectively. 1 – 3 In 500- and 1000-m events, athletes are performing at 119% and 102% of VO 2 max, 2 respectively, and therefore, VO 2 max, maximal aerobic power, and lactate threshold are strongly related to performance. 4 – 6 Shorter
Myriam Paquette, François Bieuzen and François Billaut
Anita M. Rivera-Brown, Miguel A. Rivera and Walter R. Frontera
This study examined the applicability of criteria for maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) in adolescents. Active females (n=38) and males (n=196) who were students at a sports-technical junior high school performed a treadmill Bruce protocol to volitional fatigue. The criteria for V̇O2max were R ≥1.0, HR ≥95% of predicted maximal for age, and an increase in V̇O2 ≤2.1 ml·kg−1·min−1 with an increase in workload. The first criterion was met by 97% of the females and 93% of the males, while 81% of the females and 75% of the males met the second criterion. Only 8% of the females and 13% of the males met the third criterion. Those who achieved a plateau showed higher HR at peak exercise compared to those who did not (204 ±7.0 vs. 200.6 ±7.2, P≤0.05). Our data indicate that a high proportion of adolescents exhibit subjective and objective indicators of maximal performance without showing a plateau in V̇O2. Age-specific criteria for V̇O2max should be developed.
Luana T. Rossato, Camila T.M. Fernandes, Públio F. Vieira, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Paula C. Nahas, Guilherme M. Puga and Erick P. de Oliveira
runners (24.1 [4.3] y), healthy, uninjured, and trained (VO 2 max = 55.8 [4.7] mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ) participated in this study. The participants had at least 3 years of experience in running and presented an average of training frequency of 6 times per week. In addition, all volunteers were well
Anita M. Rivera-Brown and Walter R. Frontera
This study examined the effect of different testing ergometers on V̇O2max, V̇O2max criteria achievement, and reliability of V̇O2max for V̇O2 plateau achievers and nonachievers. Twenty trained adolescents completed a treadmill, cycling, and rowing protocol twice. Of all subjects, 35%, 65%, and 45% did not achieve a plateau in either test (No P) during treadmill, cycling, and rowing, respectively. V̇O2max did not differ between tests for the total group or within the plateau and No P groups in any of the ergometers. A high reliability for V̇O2max was obtained in all ergometers. Our data suggest that Taylor’s criterion should not be a requisite for V̇O2max when testing trained adolescents.
Richard R. Suminski, Larry T. Wier, Walker Poston, Brian Arenare, Anthony Randles and Andrew S. Jackson
Nonexercise models were developed to predict maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). While these models are accurate, they don’t consider smoking, which negatively impacts measured VO2max. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoking on both measured and predicted VO2max.
Indirect calorimetry was used to measure VO2max in 2,749 men and women. Physical activity using the NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS), body mass index (BMI), and smoking (pack-y = packs·day * y of smoking) also were assessed. Pack-y groupings were Never (0 pack-y), Light (1–10), Moderate (11–20), and Heavy (>20). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the effect of smoking on VO2max predicted by PASS, age, BMI, and gender.
Measured VO2max was significantly lower in the heavy smoking group compared with the other pack-y groups. The combined effects of PASS, age, BMI, and gender on measured VO2max were significant. With smoking in the model, the estimated effects on measured VO2max from Light, Moderate, and Heavy smoking were –0.83, –0.85, and –2.56 ml·kg−1·min−1, respectively (P < .05).
Given that 21% of American adults smoke and 12% of them are heavy smokers, it is recommended that smoking be considered when using nonexercise models to predict VO2max.
Thomas A. Haugen, Espen Tønnessen, Erlend Hem, Svein Leirstein and Stephen Seiler
To quantify VO2max among female competitive soccer players as a function of performance level, field position, and age. In addition, the evolution of VO2max among world-class players over an 18-y period was quantified.
Female players (N = 199, 22 ± 4 y, 63 ± 6 kg, height 169 ± 6 cm), including an Olympic winning squad, were tested for VO2max at the Norwegian Olympic Training Center between 1989 and 2007.
National-team players had 5% higher VO2max than 1st-division players (P = .042, d = 0.4), 13% higher than 2nd-division players (P < .001, d = 1.2), and 9% higher than junior players (P = .005, d = 1.0). Midfielders had 8% higher VO2max than goalkeepers (P = .048, d = 1.1). No significant differences were observed across outfield players or different age categories. There was a trend toward lower relative VO2max across time epochs.
This study demonstrated that VO2max varies across playing-standard level in women’s soccer. No significant differences in VO2max were observed across outfield positions and age categories. Over time, there has been a slight negative development in VO2max among elite Norwegian soccer players.
James Faulkner, Alexis R. Mauger, Brandon Woolley and Danielle Lambrick
To assess the utility of a self-paced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) test (SPV) in eliciting an accurate measure of VO2max in comparison with a traditional graded exercise test (GXT) during motorized treadmill exercise.
This was a cross-sectional experimental study whereby recreationally trained men (n = 13, 25.5 ± 4.6 y) completed 2 maximal exercise tests (SPV, GXT) separated by a 72-h recovery period.
The GXT was continuous and incremental, with prescribed 1-km/h increases every 2 min until the attainment of VO2max. The SPV consisted of 5 × 2-min stages of incremental exercise, which were self-selected and adjusted according to 5 prescribed RPE levels (RPE 11, 13, 15, 17, and 20).
Although no significant differences in VO2max were observed between the SPV and GXT (63.9 ± 3.3 cf 60.9 ± 4.6 mL · kg−1 · min−1, respectively, P > .05), the apparent 4.7% mean difference may be practically important. The 95% limits-of-agreement analysis was 3.03 ± 11.49 mL · kg−1 · min−1. Therefore, in the worst-case scenario, the GXT may underestimate measured VO2max as ascertained by the SPV by up to 19%. Conversely, the SPV could underestimate the GXT by 14%.
The current study has shown that the SPV is an accurate measure of VO2max during exercise on a motorized treadmill and may provide a slightly higher VO2max value than that obtained from a traditional GXT. The higher VO2max during the SPV may be important when prescribing training or monitoring athlete progression.
Anita M. Rivera-Brown, Miguel A. Rivera and Walter R. Frontera
This study examined the test-retest reliability of V̇O2max in adolescent V̇O2 plateau achievers and nonachievers. Nineteen male long-distance runners completed a modified Taylor running protocol to volitional fatigue twice within a one-week period. Results showed that 10 subjects did not achieve a plateau in either test (No P), and 9 achieved a plateau in at least one of the tests (P). The V̇O2max differed (p < .05) between tests (Test 1 and Test 2) for the entire sample (Test 1 = 70.4 ± 6.0, Test 2 = 71.7 ± 6.3) but not within the groups (No P, Test 1 = 72.1 ± 4.4, Test 2 = 73.2 ± 4.2; P, Test 1 = 68.5 ± 7.3, Test 2 = 70.1 ± 7.9). V̇O2max was similar for plateau achievers and nonachievers in both Test 1 and Test 2 (p > .05). Interclass correlation coefficients for V̇O2max were high for both the No P (R = .87) and P (R = .97) groups. A high test-retest reliability coefficient for V̇O2max can be obtained even when a plateau in V̇O2 is not achieved.
Silvia Pogliaghi, Cecilia Bellotti and Donald H. Paterson
The authors developed and validated a “tailored” version of the Åstrand-Rhyming step test (tA-R) and a new equation for VO2max prediction in older adults (OA). Sixty subjects (age 68 ± 4 yr, 30 male, 30 female) performed their tA-R step test (5-min, 30-cm step, tailored stepping rate) and an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. VO2max was (a) predicted using the standard A-R equation (predictedVO2max), (b) predicted based on the authors’ new multiple linear equation (equationVO2max), and (c) directly measured by incremental cycling test (directVO2max). Agreement among values of VO2max was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis. The predictedVO2max was not significantly different from the directVO2max, yet with relatively large imprecision. The equationVO2max allowed more precise as well as accurate predictions of VO2max compared with standard A-R prediction. The “tailored” version of the Åstrand-Rhyming step test and the new prediction equation appear suitable for a rapid (5-min), safe (submaximal), accurate, and precise VO2max prediction in healthy OA.
Bumsoo Ahn, Robert McMurray and Joanne Harrell
The relationship between insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), percent body fat, and aerobic fitness (VO2max per unit fat free mass; mL/kgFFM/min) was examined in 1,710 children. Percent body fat was estimated from sum of skinfolds, and VO2max was estimated from submaximal cycle ergometer tests. Overnight fasting blood samples were obtained. VO2max (mL/kgFFM/min) and percent body fat were correlated with HOMA-IR (r=-0.076, p < .002; r=.420, p < .001, respectively); as was VO2max in units of mL/kg/min (r=-0.264, p < .001). When VO2max in mL/kg/min was used, a progressive increase in HOMA-IR was found with decreasing fitness (p < .05). However, when mL/kgFFM/min was used, HOMA-IR scores remained similar between moderate-fit and low-fit group. The stronger association between aerobic fitness (mL/kg/min) and HOMA-IR is partially due to the significant association of fat mass to HOMA-IR. Therefore, our recommendation is to express aerobic fitness in units of mL/kgFFM/min to eliminate the confounding factor of adiposity and better understand the influence of muscle on insulin resistance.