Conditions associated with inactivity, including overweight and obesity, are increasingly common in children ( 33 ). Overweight contributes to many negative health outcomes during childhood, and children who are overweight are more likely to be overweight as adults ( 8 , 38 ). Research consistently
Jeffrey C. Cowley, Steven T. McCaw, Kelly R. Laurson and Michael R. Torry
Kristy Martin, Kevin G. Thompson, Richard Keegan and Ben Rattray
and cognitive domains. For example, participants who spent 2 weeks recording everything they ate had improved handgrip endurance performance compared with a control group who did not engage in any deliberate self-regulatory activities ( Muraven, Baumeister, & Tice, 1999 ). Similarly, 2 months of an
self-concordant, the individual will be more autonomously motivated. 17 Individuals who hold autonomous motivation exercise more frequently than those with more controlled motives. 18 , 19 Table 1 Operational Definitions of Cognitive Variables Term Definition Habit Behavioral tendencies to repeat
Joy B. Reeves
A survey of male players of the National Survival Game reveals that most participants are young, white, single, well educated, and consider themselves to be active sportsmen. A factor analysis suggests that there are three distinct reasons for participation: (a) general physical, intellectual, and social benefits, (b) aggression, and (c) achievement and control. Surprisingly, those players in the sample who had traditional sex-role attitudes participated less frequently than those with less traditional views.
Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull
World Health Organization (WHO) developed guidelines on physical activity, sedentary, and sleep behaviors, as requested by the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity. The WHO guideline process is a rigorous, systematic, and transparent process for the development of recommendations that takes into
Patricia A. Hageman, Carol H. Pullen and Michael Yoerger
or more, or as represented by metabolic equivalents (MET) with 500 MET·min/week or more ( Haskell et al., 2007 ; Nelson, Rajeski, & Blair, 2007 ). Individuals who are active report better health-related quality of life (HRQOL) than those who are inactive, regardless of the severity of their
Catherine Dwyer and Beryl E. McKenzie
In order to evaluate the contribution of visual memory to problems in the development of motor coordination, 9- to 13-year-old boys who were clumsy were tested on a graphic reproduction task under two delay conditions. Their performances were compared with those of control children. Individual geometric patterns were presented as a whole or sequentially, and children reproduced these patterns immediately after the inspection period or after a delay of 15 s. There was no difference in the accuracy of the reproductions of the two groups on immediate recall. After the 15-s delay, the reproductions of children who were clumsy were markedly less accurate, whereas those of the control children were unchanged. Although children who were clumsy completed their reproductions more quickly, there was no correlation between their accuracy scores and response duration. It was concluded that a difference in visual rehearsal strategies may distinguish children who are clumsy from their peers.
Gail M. Dummer, John L. Haubenstricker and David A. Stewart
The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) was used to assess the fundamental motor skills of 91 girls and 110 boys aged 4 to 18 years who attended two schools for students who are deaf. Average hearing loss, determined by better ear average, was 96.94 dB (SD = 14.40 dB). Modifications to the procedures for administering the TGMD included visual demonstrations and the use of signing to communicate instructions. The raw score means of subjects aged 4–10 years who were deaf were lower than those of the TGMD standardization sample of same-aged children who could hear at six of seven age levels on both the object-control and locomotor subscales. However, there were relatively small differences in the mean scores of the two groups. Subjects with mature movement patterns for the throw, kick, jump, and run performed better on quantitative tests for those skills than subjects with immature patterns. Typical age and gender patterns of skill acquisition were revealed for both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the fundamental motor skills examined.
John B. Bartholomew
Numerous interventions have been designed to modify children's physical activity and eating behaviors. While early research centered on the individual as the target of intervention, more recent work targets change in the environment. These studies have consistently supported the importance of environmental contributors to both physical activity and eating behavior, but little research has considered those who are responsible for implementing environmental change. For example, if we expect school environments to support activity and healthy eating, we must consider the motivation of school administrators to affect change. This review will present examples of an ecological approach to behavior change along with recent data to support this approach.
Darwyn E. Linder, David R. Pillow and Raymond R. Re»©
Two experiments tested the hypothesis that athletes who consult a sport psychologist to improve performance are derogated by the public compared to athletes who attempt to resolve the same issues by working with their coaches. In the first experiment a college quarterback was reported to have worked with either his coaches or a sport psychologist on improving his consistency. The primary dependent variable was how strongly subjects would recommend drafting the player in question. There was a significant main effect for the coach versus sport psychologist variable, no main effect for the type of problem, and no interaction effect. A set of 10 bipolar scales were analyzed to explore the attributions associated with the draft rating. The second experiment investigated whether the negative halo effect would occur in other sports and apply to players in peripheral as well as central positions. The results indicated that the negative halo effect occurred for a basketball guard on the draft rating but not for a center, a pitcher, or an outfielder. However, a MANOVA of the 10 scales revealed a main effect for the consultant variable. The results of the two experiments were discussed in relation to theories of deviance and stigmatization.