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Erin E. Centeio, Heather Erwin and Darla M. Castelli

As public health concerns about physical inactivity and childhood obesity continue to rise, researchers are calling for interventions that comprehensively lead to more opportunities to participate in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics and attitudes of trained physical education teachers during the implementation of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program at the elementary level. Using a collective case study design, interviews, observations, field notes, open-ended survey questions, and an online forum monitoring guided the interpretation of teacher perceptions and development of emergent themes. Qualitative data analysis was conducted for each individual teacher and then across the ten teachers which produced four major themes: (a) Leading the Charge: Ready, Set, Go!, (b) Adoption versus Adaptation: Implementation Varies, (c) Social Media’s Place in the Professional Development (PD) Community, and (d) Keys to Successful Implementation. It can be concluded that, based on these findings, elementary physical education teachers are ready and willing to implement CSPAP. Key factors that may influence this implementation are discussed.

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Laura B. Russ, Collin A. Webster, Michael W. Beets and David S. Phillips


A “whole-of-school” approach is nationally endorsed to increase youth physical activity (PA). Aligned with this approach, comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP) are recommended. Distinct components of a CSPAP include physical education (PE), PA during the school day (PADS), PA before/after school (PABAS), staff wellness (SW), and family/community engagement (FCE). The effectiveness of interventions incorporating multiple CSPAP components is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted examining the effectiveness of multicomponent interventions on youth total daily PA.


Electronic databases were searched for published studies that (1) occurred in the US; (2) targeted K–12 (5–18 years old); (3) were interventions; (4) reflected ≥ 2 CSPAP components, with at least 1 targeting school-based PA during school hours; and (5) reported outcomes as daily PA improvements. Standardized mean effects (Hedge’s g) from pooled random effects inverse-variance models were estimated.


Across 14 studies, 12 included PE, 5 PADS, 1 PABAS, 2 SW, and 14 FCE. No studies included all 5 CSPAP components. Overall, intervention impact was small (0.11, 95% CI 0.03–0.19).


As designed, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of multicomponent interventions to increase youth total daily PA. Increased alignment with CSPAP recommendations may improve intervention effectiveness.

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James Mandigo, Ken Lodewyk and Jay Tredway

cocurricular (e.g., intramural, school sport) offerings and had conducted several workshops with teachers and parents about its overall strategy to support students on their physical literacy journey. Castelli et al. ( 2015 ) have identified adopting this type of whole-of-school approach as critical to

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Michelle E. Jordan, Kent Lorenz, Michalis Stylianou and Pamela Hodges Kulinna

PA and healthy behavior knowledge ( Keating et al., 2009 ). Whole-of-school approaches have been identified as likely to improve youth PA and other health-related outcomes ( IOM, 2013 ) and have been developed around the world ( McMullen, Chróinín, Tammelin, Pogorzelska, & van der Mars, 2015

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Gabriella M. McLoughlin, Kim C. Graber, Amelia M. Woods, Tom Templin, Mike Metzler and Naiman A. Khan

teachers can be successful implementors. As it is unlikely that a small staff of physical educators will have the capacity for such a task, a whole of school approach is recommended ( CDC, 2014 ; Stokols, 1992 ). This would involve key stakeholders such as teachers, parents, students, and administration

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Collin A. Webster, Diana Mindrila, Chanta Moore, Gregory Stewart, Karie Orendorff and Sally Taunton

The comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) model was introduced in a position statement by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education ( NASPE, 2008, now the Society of Health and Physical Educators [SHAPE] America ). A CSPAP has been viewed as a coordinated, “whole-of-school

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Collin A. Webster, Diana Mîndrilă, Chanta Moore, Gregory Stewart, Karie Orendorff and Sally Taunton

adopters of multicomponent approaches with a clearer framework for program development and implementation. Since its inception, the CSPAP model has become the sine qua non of whole-of-school approaches to PA promotion. CSPAPs offer new direction and guidance for potential adopters and can therefore be