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Nico Hofman, Jac Orie, Marco J.M. Hoozemans, Carl Foster, and Jos J. de Koning

Evaluation of anaerobic energy production is important to athletes involved in speed-endurance sports. The Wingate test is one of the most popular laboratory tests designed to evaluate anaerobic power. 1 This 30-second cycle ergometer test has been shown to be effective at distinguishing

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Pablo Jodra, Raúl Domínguez, Antonio J. Sánchez-Oliver, Pablo Veiga-Herreros, and Stephen J. Bailey

for at least 3 months before the study onset; (4) nonsmoker; (5) no cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, neurological, or orthopedic disorders that could interfere with cycle ergometer performance; (6) not a full-time professional athlete; and (7) experience with the Wingate test, having performed

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Dale I. Lovell, Dale Mason, Elias Delphinus, and Chris McLellan

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to compare asynchronous (AS Y) arm cranking (cranks at 180° relative to each other) with synchronous (SYN) arm cranking (parallel crank setting) during the 30 s Wingate anaerobic test.

Methods:

Thirty-two physically active men (aged 22.1 ± 2.4 y) completed two Wingate tests (one ASY and one SYN) separated by 4 d in a randomized counterbalanced order. The Wingate tests were completed on a modified electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer. Performance measures assessed during the two tests include peak power, mean power, minimum power, time to peak power, rate to fatigue and maximum cadence (RPMmax). Blood lactate concentration was also measured before and 5 min after the tests.

Results:

Peak and mean power (both absolute and relative to body weight) during SYN arm cranking were significantly (p < 0.001) less than during ASY arm cranking. Rate to fatigue and RPMmax were also significantly (p = 0.012) lower during SYN arm cranking compared with ASY arm cranking. No significant difference was found between test conditions for minimum power, time to peak power or blood lactate concentration.

Conclusions:

These findings demonstrate that ASY arm cranking results in higher peak and mean anaerobic power compared with SYN arm cranking during the Wingate test. Therefore, an ASY arm crank configuration should be used to assess anaerobic power in most individuals although specific population groups may require further testing to determine which crank configuration is most suitable for the Wingate test.

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Tomás Chacón Torrealba, Jaime Aranda Araya, Nicolas Benoit, and Louise Deldicque

were performed. At day 2, a graded exercise test on a treadmill (incremental treadmill test) was followed 1 hour after by a Wingate test (WNT) that was coupled to blood lactate analyses. During all tests, the temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 18°C and 55%, respectively. After the

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Corbin Griffen, David Rogerson, Mayur Ranchordas, and Alan Ruddock

This study investigated the effects of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. Nine well-trained men (age = 21.6 ± 0.9 yr, stature = 1.82 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 80.1 ± 12.8 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study using six 10-s repeated Wingate tests. Participants ingested either a placebo (0.5 g·kg−1 of maltodextrin), 20 g·d−1 of creatine monohydrate + placebo, 0.3 g·kg−1 of sodium bicarbonate + placebo, or coingestion + placebo for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between conditions. Participants were randomized into two groups with a differential counterbalanced order. Creatine conditions were ordered first and last. Indices of mechanical power output (W), total work (J) and fatigue index (W·s−1) were measured during each test and analyzed using the magnitude of differences between groups in relation to the smallest worthwhile change in performance. Compared with placebo, both creatine (effect size (ES) = 0.37-0.83) and sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.22-0.46) reported meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output. Coingestion provided small meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output (W) compared with sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.28-0.41), but not when compared with creatine (ES = -0.21-0.14). Coingestion provided a small meaningful improvement in total work (J; ES = 0.24) compared with creatine. Fatigue index (W·s−1) was impaired in all conditions compared with placebo. In conclusion, there was no meaningful additive effect of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints.

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Stylianos N. Kounalakis, Ioannis A. Bayios, Maria D. Koskolou, and Nickos D. Geladas

Purpose:

Handball is a sport with high anaerobic demands in lower body as has been indicated by Wingate test (WT) performed with the legs, but there are no data available concerning power production during a WT performed with the arms in handball players (HndP). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the arm anaerobic profile of HndP during a WT.

Methods:

Twenty-one elite HndP and 9 physical education students (CON), performed a 30-s arm WT. Power production and muscle oxy-genation were recorded.

Results:

Peak power (PP) as well as mean power (MP) was higher (P = .017 and 0.03, and ES = 1.00 and 0.86, respectively) for HndP (HndP PP: 7.6 ± 0.8 W·kg−1, CON PP: 6.7 ± 1.1 W·kg−1; HndP MP 5.3 ± 0.6 W·kg−1, CON MP 4.6 ± 0.9 W·kg−1) with no significant difference in fatigue index between the two groups. Muscle oxygen saturation (StO2) declined ~30% with exercise with no differences between groups. During recovery the HndP group had higher StO2 (P = .01, ES= 3.04), total hemoglobin and oxygenated hemoglobin compared with the CON group (P < .01 ES = 3.29 and 0.99, respectively). StO2 returned to resting values in 29.5 ± 2.3 s in HndP, whereas this variable did not recover after 2 min in CON.

Conclusions:

The arm anaerobic capacity of the HndP was “excellent,” significantly higher than that by the control group. Moreover, HndP exhibited faster recovery of StO2 compared with the control group. The greater power output and the faster muscle reoxygenation of arms in HndP can be attributed to specific training adaptations related to high performance in handball.

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Myriam Guerra, Maria Giné-Garriga, and Bo Fernhall

The Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) has not been used to assess individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and it is unknown if it is reliable in this population. We investigated the reliability of the WAnT in 19 adolescents with DS (age = 14.8 yrs; weight = 52.7 kg; height = 146.3 cm). Participants completed, on separate days, two standards WAnT using a resistance of 0.7 Nm × body weight (kg) in individuals ≥ 14 years old, and 0.5 Nm × body weight (kg) in participants < 14 years of age. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), dependent t tests and Bland-Altman plots. There was a significant difference between days for peak power (210.37 W vs. 236.26 W; ICC = 0.93), but not for mean power (158.72 vs. 168.71 W; ICC = 0.86), time to peak power (6.67 vs. 6.28 s; ICC = 0.69), or the fatigue index (9.33 vs. 5.43 W/sec; ICC = 0.09). Adolescents with DS exhibit low WAnT performance compared with previously published data on adolescents without DS and the reliability of WAnT is questionable in this population.

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Laura Hottenrott, Sascha Ketelhut, Christoph Schneider, Thimo Wiewelhove, and Alexander Ferrauti

up to 39 years. 54 Studies comparing the acute physiological responses between different age groups usually used short intensive bursts of exercise (eg, Wingate tests) or intermittent exercise protocols. Table 1 Summary of Studies Investigating Postexercise Recovery Following High-Intensity and

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Marco E. Cabrera, Marvin D. Lough, Carl F. Doershuk, and Georgette A. DeRivera

Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were studied to investigate the muscles’ ability to produce and sustain high-intensity short-term exercise in this population. The patients, 17 males and 23 females, ranged from 10 to 39 years of age. Each patient performed a pulmonary function test followed by a Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Based on a pulmonary function scoring system, patients were classified as having severe, moderate, or mild lung dysfunction, or normal lung function. Percent ideal body weight was used to categorize the patients as nourished or malnourished. Two indices of anaerobic performance (peak power and mean power) were determined from the WAnT and normalized by actual weight or by ideal weight. Patients in the severe and moderate groups had lower peak power (PP) and lower mean power (MP) than those in the mild and normal groups. Similarly, malnourished patients showed a lower PP and MP than did nourished patients. These results were similar regardless of whether PP or MP were normalized by weight or ideal weight. It is concluded that the anaerobic performance (muscle power and endurance) of CF patients, as assessed by the WAnT, was related to the degree of severity of the overall disease process.

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Khalid S. Almuzaini

The first purpose of the present study was to test sensitivity of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) to alterations in resistance settings. The second purpose was to investigate whether using optimal braking force on WAnT enhances its relation with a 50-m dash, a vertical jump (VJ), or a standing long jump (LJ) tests. Twenty-three 12 year-old boys performed a 50-m dash, VJ, LJ, and WAnT using four braking force resistances (BFR; .065, .070, .075, and .080 kp/kg BM). Results revealed significant (p ≤ .05) differences among the four BFRs in peak power (PP) and in mean power (MP). Post hoc tests indicated significant differences among all of the four BFRs in PP and between the 0.065 and both the 0.075 and the 0.08 kp/kg BM in MP. Results of Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that using the optimal BFR for both PP and MP enhanced their relation with performance during the 50-m dash, VJ, and LJ tests. Also, partial correlation coefficients, controlling for body weight, height, percent fat, or body mass index supported these findings. It was concluded that for untrained, healthy 12-year-old boys, WAnT is sensitive to incremental alterations in resistance settings ranging from 0.065 to 0.080 kp/kg body mass. To be more specific, PP is sensitive to small increments in BFR, while MP is only sensitive to larger increments in BFR. Furthermore, optimizing resistance settings on WAnT enhances its relationship with anaerobic performance tasks, such as the 50-m dash, the VJ, and the LJ.