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Manuel D. Quinones and Peter W.R. Lemon

( Noreen & Lemon, 2006 ) and, to minimize potential experimental learning effects, participants were given an opportunity to practice the exercise tests (20-km cycling time-trial [TT 20km ] and a 30-s Wingate power test) to be used during the experimental treatments. Experimental Treatments A double

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Rheanna Bulten, Sara King-Dowling, and John Cairney

relating these scores to health outcomes over time. At present, the gold standard for measuring short-term muscular power is the Wingate anaerobic test. However, the Wingate protocol requires expensive equipment and can only be conducted in a laboratory setting. The test is not feasible for assessing short

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Nico Hofman, Jac Orie, Marco J.M. Hoozemans, Carl Foster, and Jos J. de Koning

Evaluation of anaerobic energy production is important to athletes involved in speed-endurance sports. The Wingate test is one of the most popular laboratory tests designed to evaluate anaerobic power. 1 This 30-second cycle ergometer test has been shown to be effective at distinguishing

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Naoya Takei, Jacky Soo, Hideo Hatta, and Olivier Girard

Repeated 30-second Wingates (RW), a popular form of sprint interval training, can improve aerobic and anaerobic capacities. 1 Although the majority of RW training studies have been conducted in normoxia, performing this workout with the addition of hypoxia likely induces greater physiological

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Pablo Jodra, Raúl Domínguez, Antonio J. Sánchez-Oliver, Pablo Veiga-Herreros, and Stephen J. Bailey

can improve brain blood flow, 16 which is an important determinant of RPE and mood state profile. 17 The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of NO 3 − supplementation on RPE, mood profile, and performance in a 30-second Wingate cycle test in resistance-trained males. Resistance

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Naoya Takei, Katsuyuki Kakinoki, Olivier Girard, and Hideo Hatta

hypoxic training is accompanied by reduced oxygen flux resulting from lower oxygen availability, in turn negatively impacting training intensity and/or volume (decreasing training stimulus). 3 Repeated 30-s Wingates (RW) is a form of sprint interval training involving repetition of “all-out” efforts. 4

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James Yaggie and W. Jeffrey Armstrong

Context:

Use of selective joints in fatiguing protocols might not represent athletic activity and limits generalizability.

Objective:

To quantify changes in balance indices after a generalized fatiguing activity.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

Clinical laboratory.

Participants:

16 men (24 ± 3 y) with no orthopedic problems.

Intervention:

Balance was assessed using the KAT-2000 system before (PRE) and immediately (IMMED) and 10 min (10MIN) after serial Wingate tests and at similar time points under nonfatigue conditions.

Main Outcome Measures:

Balance index (BI), fore:back ratio, and right:left ratio.

Results:

MANOVA revealed a significant Condition × Time effect (P = .023). ANOVA revealed that only BI was significant for the condition, time, and Condition × Time effects (P = .020, .007, and .003, respectively). BI increased PRE to IMMED, decreased IMMED to 10MIN, and was different from the nonfatigue condition only for IMMED (P = .002, < .001, and < .001, respectively).

Conclusions:

Fatigue adversely affects BI; recovery might occur within 10 min.

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Henrike Fischer, Daniel Weber, and Ralph Beneke

Mouth guards protect against orofacial and dental injuries in sports. However, special fitted dental splints have been claimed to improve strength and speed and, therefore, to enhance athletic performance.

Purpose:

To test the effects of a neuromuscular fitted dental splint in comparison with a habitual verticalizing splint and a no-splint condition on cycling sprint performance in the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT).

Methods:

Twenty-three men (26.0 ± 2.0 y, 1.82 ± 0.06 m, 79.4 ± 7.7 kg) performed 3 WAnTs, 1 with the neuromuscular fitted splint, 1 with a habitual verticalized dental splint of the same height and material, and 1 under control conditions without any mouth guard, in randomized order separated by 1 wk.

Results:

No differences between any splint conditions were found in any aspect of WAnT performance (time to peak power, peak power, minimum power, power drop, and average power). Moderate to nearly perfect correlations between all splint conditions in all WAnT outcomes with coefficients of variation between 1.3% and 6.6% were found.

Conclusions:

Irrespective of habitual verticalization or myocentric positioning, dental splints have no effects on any aspect of WAnT performance. Results are comparable to those of test–retest experiments.

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Kevin De Pauw, Bart Roelands, Jeroen Van Cutsem, Lieselot Decroix, Angelica Valente, Kim Taehee, Robert B. Lettan II, Andres E. Carrillo, and Romain Meeusen

Introduction:

Nasal spray (NAS) containing caffeine (CAF) or glucose (GLUC) activates sensory(motor) cortices.

Purpose:

To investigate the influence of CAF or GLUC NAS on exercise and cognitive performance.

Methods:

Eleven male subjects (age 22 ± 2 y) performed a maximal cycle test and 2 familiarization and 3 experimental trials. Each trial included a 30-s Wingate test and a 30-min time-trial (TT) performance test interspersed by 15 min of rest. Before and after each exercise test a Stroop task was conducted. Placebo NAS with or without CAF or GLUC was provided before each exercise session and at each completed 25% of the TT. Exercise-performance, physiological, and cognitive measures were obtained. Magnitude-based inferences determined the likelihood that NAS solutions would be beneficial, trivial, or negative to exercise-performance measures based on the smallest worthwhile effect. Physiological and cognitive measures were analyzed using (non)parametric tests (P < .05).

Results:

GLUC NAS substantially increased the average power output during the TT (very likely beneficial: 98%). No further worthwhile exercise-performance enhancements were found for both substances. In addition, no significant differences in physiological and cognitive measures were observed. In line with mouth rinsing, GLUC was shown to substantially enhance endurance performance, probably due to the activation of the olfactory pathway and/or extra-oral sweet-taste receptors.

Conclusion:

GLUC NAS enhances endurance performance, which indicates a novel administration route. The higher activity in sensory brain cortices probably elicited the ergogenic effect. However, no further physiological and cognitive changes occurred, indicating that higher doses of substrates might be required.

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Raoul F. Reiser II, Michael L. Peterson, and Jeffrey P. Broker

While the recumbent cycling position has become common for high-performance human-powered vehicles, questions still remain as to the influence of familiarity on recumbent cycling, the optimal riding position, and how recumbent cycling positions compare to the standard cycling position (SCP). Eight recumbent-familiar cyclists and 10 recreational control cyclists were compared using the 30-s Wingate test in 5 recumbent positions as well as the SCP. For the recumbent positions, hip position was maintained 15° below the bottom bracket while the backrest was altered to investigate body configuration angle (BCA: the angle between the bottom bracket, hip, and a marker at mid-torso) changes from 100° to 140° in 10° increments. Between-groups analysis found that only 4 of the 126 analyzed parameters differed significantly, with all trends in the same direction. Therefore both groups were combined for further analysis. Whole-group peak power (14.6 W/kg body mass) and average power (9.9 and 9.8 W/kg body mass, respectively) were greatest in the 130° and 140° BCA positions, with power dropping off as BCA decreased through 100° (peak = 12.4 W/kg body mass; avg. = 9.0 W/kg body mass). Power output in the SCP (peak = 14.6 W/kg body mass; avg. = 9.7 W/kg body mass) was similar to that produced in the 130° and 140° recumbent BCA. Average hip and ankle angles increased (became more extended/ plantar-flexed), 36° and 10°, respectively, with recumbent BCA, while knee angles remained constant. The lower extremity kinematics of the 130° and 140° BCA were most similar to those of the SCP. However, SCP hip and knee joints were slightly extended and the ankle joint was slightly plantar-flexed compared to these two recumbent positions, even though the BCA of the SCP was not significantly different. These findings suggest: (a) the amount of recumbent familiarity in this study did not produce changes in power output or kinematics; (b) BCA is a major determinant of power output; and (c) recumbent-position anaerobic power output matches that of the SCP when BCA is maintained, even though lower extremity kinematics may be altered.