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Susana Cristina Araújo Póvoas, Peter Krustrup, Carlo Castagna, Pedro Miguel Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Rita Liliana Mendes Pereira and Malte Nejst Larsen

high-intensity performance, several field tests were developed with the aim of evaluating the ability to sustain mainly aerobic exercise for a prolonged time ( 6 , 8 , 9 , 17 , 24 , 38 , 39 ). In this regard, the Yo-Yo tests proved to be feasible, valid, and reliable for determining maximal heart rate

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Susana C. A. Póvoas, Carlo Castagna, José Manuel da Costa Soares, Pedro Silva, Manuel Coelho-e-Silva, Fernando Matos and Peter Krustrup

Purpose:

The reliability and construct validity of three age-adapted-intensity Yo-Yo tests were evaluated in untrained (n = 67) vs. soccer-trained (n = 65) 9- to 16-year-old schoolgirls.

Methods:

Tests were performed 7 days apart for reliability (9- to 11-year-old: Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children’s test; 12- to 13-yearold: Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 1; and 14- to 16-year-old: Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2).

Results:

Yo-Yo distance covered was 40% (776 ± 324 vs. 556 ± 156 m), 85% (1252 ± 484 vs. 675 ± 252 m) and 138% (674 ± 336 vs. 283 ± 66 m) greater (p ≤ .010) for the soccer-trained than for the untrained girls aged 9–11, 12–13 and 14–16 years, respectively. Typical errors of measurement for Yo-Yo distance covered, expressed as a percentage of the coefficient of variation (confidence limits), were 10.1% (8.1–13.7%), 11.0% (8.6–15.4%) and 11.6% (9.2–16.1%) for soccer players, and 11.5% (9.1–15.8%), 14.1% (11.0–19.8%) and 10.6% (8.5–14.2%) for untrained girls, aged 9–11, 12–13 and 14–16, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient values for test-retest were excellent (0.795–0.973) in both groups. No significant differences were observed in relative exercise peak heart rate (%HRpeak) between groups during test and retest.

Conclusion:

The Yo-Yo tests are reliable for determining intermittent-exercise capacity and %HRpeak for soccer players and untrained 9- to 16-year-old girls. They also possess construct validity with better performances for soccer players compared with untrained age-matched girls, despite similar %HRpeak.

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Andrew Thomas, Brian Dawson and Carmel Goodman

Purpose:

The purpose of the study was to determine the reliability of yo-yo intermittent recovery test (yo-yo) scores and their degree of association with a 20-m shuttle run (20MSR) and VO2max values.

Methods:

Subjects were elite (Australian Football League [AFL], n = 23), state-level (hockey, n = 15, and cricket, n = 27), and recreational team-sport players (n = 33). All performed a 20MSR and the yo-yo at either level 1 (recreational and state level) or level 2 (AFL). A recreational subgroup (n = 19) also performed a treadmill VO2max test.

Results:

Test–retest results found the yo-yo (levels 1 and 2) to be reliable (ICC = .86 to .95). The 20MSR and yo-yo level 1 scores correlated (P < .01) in the recreational (r = .81 to .83) and state-level groups (r = .84 to .86), and 20MSR and yo-yo level 2 scores, in the elite (r = .86) and recreational groups (r = .55 to .57). The VO2max and yo-yo level 1 scores in the recreational group correlated (P < .01, r = .87), but no association was found with yo-yo level 2 (r = .40 to .43, non significant).

Conclusions:

We conclude that level 1 (recreational and state level) and level 2 (elite) yo-yo scores were both strongly associated with 20MSR scores and VO2max (level 1: recreational subjects only). The yo-yo appears to measure aerobic fitness similarly to the 20MSR but may also be used as a field test of the ability to repeat high-intensity efforts.

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Georgia M. Black, Tim J. Gabbett, Rich D. Johnston, Michael H. Cole, Geraldine Naughton and Brian Dawson

were closely related to performance on the Yo-Yo test. The selected midfielders covered greater total distances than nonselected players as a direct result of greater playing time. Although there were no differences in overall work rate between groups, it is likely that the superior Yo-Yo IR1 scores

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Saichon Kloyiam, Sarah Breen, Philip Jakeman, Joe Conway and Yeshayahu Hutzler

The purpose of this study was to describe running economy, soccer specific endurance, and selected kinematic running criteria in soccer players with cerebral palsy (SPCP) and to compare them with values of position-matched players without CP. Fourteen international, male soccer players with cerebral palsy completed the “Yo-Yo” intermittent recovery run level 1 (IRL-1) test to assess soccer-specific endurance and a submaximal running test on a treadmill to determine running economy. The mean IRL-1 distance covered by the SPCP of the Irish CP team was found to be 43–50% below the mean distance attained by position-matched soccer players without disability, while running economy was found to be within the range of that reported for able-bodied athletes. No relationship could be found between the level of CP-ISRA classification and soccer-specific endurance or running economy in this group of elite level SPCP. Though small in number, these data support a further examination of the relationship between CP classification and sport-specific performance.

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Leyre Gravina, Frankie F. Brown, Lee Alexander, James Dick, Gordon Bell, Oliver C. Witard and Stuart D.R. Galloway

Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation could promote adaptation to soccer-specific training. We examined the impact of a 4-week period of n-3 FA supplementation during training on adaptations in 1RM knee extensor strength, 20-m sprint speed, vertical jump power, and anaerobic endurance capacity (Yo-Yo test) in competitive soccer players. Twenty six soccer players were randomly assigned to one of two groups: n-3 FA supplementation (n-3 FA; n = 13) or placebo (n = 13). Both groups performed two experimental trial days. Assessments of physical function and respiratory function were conducted pre (PRE) and post (POST) supplementation. Training session intensity, competitive games and nutritional intake were monitored during the 4-week period. No differences were observed in respiratory measurements (FEV1, FVC) between groups. No main effect of treatment was observed for 1RM knee extensor strength, explosive leg power, or 20 m sprint performance, but strength improved as a result of the training period in both groups (p < .05). Yo-Yo test distance improved with training in the n-3 FA group only (p < .01). The mean difference (95% CI) in Yo-Yo test distance completed from PRE to POST was 203 (66–340) m for n-3 FA, and 62 (-94–217) m for placebo, with a moderate effect size (Cohen’s d of 0.52). We conclude that 4 weeks of n-3 FA supplementation does not improve strength, power or speed assessments in competitive soccer players. However, the increase in anaerobic endurance capacity evident only in the n-3 FA treatment group suggests an interaction that requires further study.

Open access

In the article “Reliability and Construct Validity of Yo-Yo Tests in Untrained and Soccer-Trained Schoolgirls Aged 9–16” in Pediatric Exercise Science , 28(2), pp. 321–330, https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.2015-0212 , the affiliation for Póvoas was incomplete, missing the university affiliation

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Cristiane B.B. Antonelli, Charlini S. Hartz, Sileno da Silva Santos and Marlene A. Moreno

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of inspiratory muscle training associated with interval training on respiratory muscle strength and fatigue and aerobic physical performance (PP) in high-performance wheelchair basketball athletes. Methods: Blinded, randomized clinical trial with 17 male wheelchair basketball players, randomized into control group (CG; n = 8) and training group (TG; n = 9). Respiratory muscle strength was evaluated by measuring maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP), aerobic PP by the Yo-Yo test for wheelchair, and recovery of inspiratory muscle fatigue was assessed at 1, 5, 10, and 15 minutes after exercise test. TG performed inspiratory muscle training protocol with incremental loading for 12 weeks with 50%, 60%, and 70% of MIP, while CG performed with load 15% of MIP. Results: After training period, CG presented a significant increase in MIP and MEP (P ≤ .05), with no change in aerobic PP (P ≥ .05). TG showed a significant increase for all variables (≤.05). MIP showed a large effect size for CG (1.00) and TG (1.35), while MEP showed a moderate effect for CG (0.61) and TG (0.73); distance covered had a moderate effect size for TG (0.70). For recovery of inspiratory muscle strength, CG did not present differences, while TG recovered in 10 minutes (≤.05), representing 87% of the pretest value. Positive and significant correlation between MIP and distance (.54; P ≤ .05) was observed. Conclusion: Inspiratory muscle training protocol with progressive loading was more effective for increasing aerobic PP and maximal inspiratory strength recovery.

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Lucas A. Pereira, Andrew A. Flatt, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Irineu Loturco and Fabio Y. Nakamura

Purpose:

To compare the LnRMSSD and the LnRMSSD:RR values obtained during a 5-min stabilization period with the subsequent 5-min criterion period and to determine the time course for LnRMSSD and LnRMSSD:RR stabilization at 1-min analysis in elite team-sport athletes.

Participants:

35 elite futsal players (23.9 ± 4.5 y, 174.2 ± 4.0 cm, 74.0 ± 7.5 kg, 1576.2 ± 396.3 m in the Yo-Yo test level 1).

Methods:

The RR-interval recordings were obtained using a portable heart-rate monitor continuously for 10 min in the seated position. The 2 dependent variables analyzed were LnRMSSD and LnRMSSD:RR. To calculate the magnitude of the differences between time periods, effect-size (ES) analysis was conducted. To assess the levels of agreement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used.

Results:

The LnRMSSD and LnRMSSD:RR values obtained during the stabilization period (0–5 min) presented very large to nearly perfect ICCs with the values obtained during the criterion period (5–10 min), with trivial ESs. In the ultra-short-term analysis (ie, 1-min segments) the data showed slightly less accurate results, but only trivial to small differences with very large to nearly perfect ICCs were found.

Conclusion:

LnRMSSD and LnRMSSD:RR can be recorded in 5 min without traditional stabilization periods under resting conditions in team-sport athletes. The ultra-short-term analysis (1 min) also revealed acceptable levels of agreement with the criterion.

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Mayur K. Ranchordas, George King, Mitchell Russell, Anthony Lynn and Mark Russell

61.82]%) further distance on the test (caffeine: 1,754 ± 156 m, placebo: 1,719 ± 139 m; p  = .016; small effect: d  = 0.24). Figure  1 shows the percentage improvement on the Yo-Yo test for individual participants. Figure 1 —(a) Total distance covered on the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level