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Timothy J. Gibbons and Marie-Louise Bird

deep abdominal muscles from stable to more unstable surfaces with each task. Figure 4 —Comparison of abdominal muscle thickness (TrA and IO combined) on three different surfaces during three exercise tasks. In comparing the effect of the different exercises, greater thickness of contralateral TrA was

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Fatemeh Ehsani, Rozita Hedayati, Rasool Bagheri and Shapour Jaberzadeh

measure muscle thickness during standing postural tasks would be valuable to clinicians in order to assess the effectiveness of core stabilization programs and could aid in return to work decisions, as abdominal muscle thickness has been shown to correlate with strength. 35 Ultrasound (US) imaging has

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Sung-min Ha, Oh-yun Kwon, Su-jung Kim and Sung-dae Choung


A normal breathing pattern while performing the abdominal-hollowing (AH) maneuver or spinal-stabilization exercise is essential for the success of rehabilitation programs and exercises. In previous studies, subjects were given standardized instructions to control the influence of respiration during the AH maneuver. However, the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness during the AH maneuver has not been investigated.


To compare abdominal-muscle thickness in subjects performing the AH maneuver under normal and abnormal breathing-pattern conditions and to investigate the effect of breathing pattern on the preferential contraction ratio (PCR) of the transverse abdominis.


Comparative, repeated-measures experimental study.


University research laboratory.


16 healthy subjects (8 male, 8 female) from a university population.


A real-time ultrasound scanner was used to measure abdominal-muscle thickness during normal and abnormal breathing patterns. A paired t test was used to assess the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness and PCR.


Muscle thickness in the transverse abdominis and internal oblique muscles was significantly greater under the normal breathing pattern than under the abnormal pattern (P < .05). The PCR of the transverse abdominis was significantly higher under the normal breathing pattern compared with the abnormal pattern (P < .05).


The results indicate that a normal breathing pattern is essential for performance of an effective AH maneuver. Thus, clinicians should ensure that patients adopt a normal breathing pattern before performing the AH maneuver and monitor transverse abdominis activation during the maneuver.

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Mark A. Sutherlin, L. Colby Mangum, Jay Hertel, Susan A. Saliba and Joseph M. Hart

abdominal muscle thickness . J Ultrasound Med . 2017 ; 36 ( 4 ): 775 – 782 . doi:10.7863/ultra.16.03086 27943381 10.7863/ultra.16.03086 27. Linek P . The importance of body mass normalization for ultrasound measurements of the morphology of oblique abdominis muscles: the effect of age, gender and sport

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Leila Ahmadnezhad, Ali Yalfani and Behnam Gholami Borujeni

.12.003 10. Oh D , Kim G , Lee W , Shin MM . Effects of inspiratory muscle training on balance ability and abdominal muscle thickness in chronic stroke patients . J Phys Ther Sci . 2016 ; 28 ( 1 ): 107 – 111 . PubMed ID: 26957739 doi: 10.1589/jpts.28.107 26957739 11. Faul F , Erdfelder E

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Ui-Jae Hwang, Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-A Kim, Jun-Hee Kim and Oh-Yun Kwon

, Wolny T , Myśliwiec A . Body mass normalization for ultrasound measurements of adolescent lateral abdominal muscle thickness . J Ultrasound Med . 2017 ; 36 ( 4 ): 775 – 782 . PubMed ID: 27943381 doi: 10.7863/ultra.16.03086 27943381 43. Cheung CY , Ng GY . An eight-week exercise programme

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Mohammadreza Pourahmadi, Hamid Hesarikia, Ali Ghanjal and Alireza Shamsoddini

, Klepek A , Wolny T , Mikołajowski G . Reliability of the lateral abdominal muscle thickness measurements in idiopathic scoliosis patients . Musculoskelet Sci Pract . 2018 ; 38 : 151 – 154 . PubMed ID: 29776776 doi:10.1016/j.msksp.2018.05.001 29776776 10.1016/j.msksp.2018.05.001 15. Lucas NP

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Leanne Sawle, Jennifer Freeman and Jonathan Marsden

HJ . Changes in abdominal muscle thickness measured by ultrasound are not associated with recovery in athletes with longstanding groin pain associated with resisted hip adduction . J Orthop Sports Phys Ther . 2009 ; 39 ( 10 ): 724 – 732 . PubMed ID: 19801814 doi:10.2519/jospt.2009.3068 19801814 10