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Danielle Sterba, Jessie N. Stapleton, and Winston Kennedy

identifying as physically and intellectually nondisabled ignoring, avoiding, or patronizing people with a disability. The phenomenon of athletes with disabilities (a known minority group) being subjected to ableism led to the development of the term able-bodied hegemony. This term deliberately uses the

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Gerda Strutzenberger, Adam Brazil, Timothy Exell, Hans von Lieres und Wilkau, John D. Davies, Steffen Willwacher, Johannes Funken, Ralf Müller, Kai Heinrich, Hermann Schwameder, Wolfgang Potthast, and Gareth Irwin

In sprint events, the early acceleration phase (defined here as the first and second steps from the blocks) is used to accelerate the center of mass (COM) horizontally and vertically. 1 , 2 In able-bodied (AB) elite athletes, the first and second steps account for approximately 5% of the total 100

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Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova, and Anton Arndt

study on a group of elite able-bodied kayakers 1 and new data on athletes from the 3 classification groups of elite level para-kayakers were investigated during high-intensity kayak ergometer paddling. The first purpose of this study was to examine if there were any significant differences in stroke

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Nima Dehghansai, Daniel Spedale, Melissa J. Wilson, and Joseph Baker

In recent decades, research pertaining to able-bodied (AB) athletes’ development has seen tremendous growth, while little attention has been given to Para sport athletes ( Dehghansai, Lemez, Wattie, & Baker, 2017a ). This is surprising, considering the growth of Para sport systems across the globe

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Camilla H. Carlsen, David McGhie, Julia K. Baumgart, and Øyvind Sandbakk

their speed through regulation of cycle length (CL) and cycle rate (CR). When double poling, able-bodied XC skiers utilize longer poling times (PT) associated with the lower speed in uphill compared to flat terrain. Longer PT allows a higher production of work per cycle (work cycle ) and thereby greater

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Nicholas D. Parr, Chris J. Hass, and Mark D. Tillman

Cellular phone texting has become increasingly popular, raising the risk of distraction-related injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare alterations in gait parameters during normal gait as opposed to walking while texting. Thirty able-bodied young adults (age = 20 ± 2 y, height = 171 ± 40 cm, mass = 61.7 ± 11.2 kg) who reported texting on a regular basis were tested using an 11-camera optical motion capture system as they walked across an 8 m, obstacle-free floor. A reduction in velocity (P < .05) was seen along with additional significant changes in spatial and temporal parameters. Specifically, step width and double stance time increased, while toe clearance, step length, and cadence decreased. Although many of the changes in spatial and temporal parameters generally accompany slowed gait, the complex distraction task used here may have amplified these potentially deleterious effects. The combination of the slower gait velocity and decrease in attention to the surrounding environment suggests that an individual who is texting while walking could be at a greater risk of injury. Tripping injuries while texting could be more likely due to the decreased toe clearance. In addition, increased step width may increase the likelihood of stepping on an unstable surface or colliding with obstacles in close proximity.

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Claudine Sherrill and Wanda Rainbolt

Self-actualization profiles were plotted for 265 college-age able-bodied male athletes and 30 elite cerebral palsied male athletes, M age = 24.9, all of whom were international competitors. These profiles were examined in relation to one another and in relation to two normative groups, one consisting of adults and one consisting of college students. Results indicated that college-age able-bodied male athletes and elite cerebral palsied male athletes have similar self-actualization profiles. Elite cerebral palsied male athletes were found to be significantly less self-actualized than normal adults in the areas of time competence, existentiality, self-acceptance, nature of man, and synergy (Shostrom, 1964). Able-bodied college-age male athletes were generally more self-actualized than members of their age-appropriate reference group (i.e., male college students). Implications for sport psychology and counseling are discussed.

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Stephen F. Figoni, Richard A. Boileau, Benjamin H. Massey, and Joseph R. Larsen

The purpose of this study was to compare quadriplegic and able-bodied men on selected cardiovascular and metabolic responses to arm-crank ergometry at the same rate of oxygen consumption (V̇O2). Subjects included 11 untrained, spinal cord-injured, C5–C7 complete quadriplegic men and 11 untrained, able-bodied men of similar age (27 years), height (177 cm), and mass (65 kg). Measurement techniques included open-circuit spirometry, impedance cardiography, and electrocardiography. Compared with the able-bodied group, at the V̇O2 of 0.5 L/min, the quadriplegics displayed a significantly higher mean heart rate and arteriovenous O2 difference, lower stroke volume and cardiac output, and similar myocardial contractility. These results suggest that quadriplegic men achieve an exercise-induced V̇O2 of 0.5 L/min through different central cardiovascular adjustments than do able-bodied men. Quadriplegics deliver less O2 from the heart toward the tissues but extract more O2 from the blood. Tachycardia may contribute to low cardiac preload and low stroke volume, while paradoxically tending to compensate for low stroke volume by minimizing reduction of cardiac output.

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Keith Henschen, Michael Horvat, and Ron French

The purpose of this study was to visually compare the psychological profile of 33 male wheelchair athletes who competed in track and field events, with previous results of able-bodied athletes. Based on the data gathered using the Profile of Mood States and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory the wheelchair athletes demonstrated a profile similar to that of able-bodied athletes. This finding was discussed in terms of mental skills that may be developed by wheelchair athletes because of their injuries, possible influence of medication, and higher level of demonstrated anger.

Considering that the human body is made for movement, it is a universally accepted fact that sports are one of the activities that are extremely healthy for man. Unlike the machines invented by man, the human machine deteriorates with inactivity. (Monnazzi, 1982, p. 85)

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Joan Vidal, Josep Medina, Casimiro Javierre, Alberto Morales, J.R. Barbany, Andrea Suarez, Josep L. Ventura, and Ramon Segura


To compare the response to physical exercise between subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied (AB) subjects with the objective of developing a new formula for the indirect calculation of oxygen consumption (VO2).


20 individuals with paraplegia below Th6 and 22 AB subjects have participated in the study.


A graded work test was performed on an arm ergometer, starting with 10 w and increasing the power in 10 w each minute up to maximal effort. SCI group present a lower response to the different workloads with respect to the AB group.


In the SCI group, a statistical association was found between workload and VO2 (r = 0.956, P < 0.001). The proposed equation to calculate the theoretical VO2 was the following: 0.487 + (0.013 · watts performed).


SCI males, respect to AB subjects, show differences in ventilatory response to exercises. We propose a new formula for the indirect calculation of VO2 in relation to workload.