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Camilla H. Carlsen, David McGhie, Julia K. Baumgart, and Øyvind Sandbakk

Purpose: To compare peak work rate (WRpeak) and associated physiological and biomechanical performance-determining variables between flat and uphill cross-country (XC) sit-skiing. Methods: Fifteen able-bodied male XC skiers completed 2 test sessions, each comprising four 4-minute submaximal stages, followed by an incremental test to exhaustion and a verification test in a sit-ski on a roller-ski treadmill. The test sessions were counterbalanced by the incline, being either 0.5% (FLAT) or 5% (UPHILL). The authors compared WRpeak and peak oxygen uptake, as well as physiological variables, rating of perceived exertion, gross efficiency, and cycle characteristics at identical submaximal work rate, between FLAT and UPHILL. Results: In UPHILL, WRpeak was 35% higher compared to FLAT (P < .001), despite no difference in peak oxygen uptake (P = .9). The higher WRpeak in UPHILL was achieved through more work per cycle, which was enabled by the twice as long poling time, compared to FLAT (P < .001). Submaximal gross efficiency was 0.5 to 2 percentage points lower in FLAT compared to UPHILL (P < .001), with an increasing difference as work rate increased (P < .001). Neither cycle rate nor work per cycle differed between inclines when compared at identical submaximal work rate (P > .16). Conclusions: The longer poling times utilized in uphill XC sit-skiing enable more work per cycle and better gross efficiency, thereby allowing skiers to achieve a higher WRpeak compared to flat XC sit-skiing. However, the similar values of peak oxygen uptake between inclines indicate that XC sit-skiers can tax their cardiorespiratory capacity similarly in both conditions.

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Ik Young Chang, Jane Crossman, Jane Taylor, and Diane Walker

This study compared and explored the textual coverage of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) by the Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail. The authors found 8 high-order themes and 25 low-order themes for the OG. The high-order themes were predicting game results, reporting game results, athleticism, politics, ethical issues, nationalism, the media, and the economy. For the PG, there were 4 high-order themes, and each high-order theme had 1 low-order theme. The high-order themes were reporting game results, athleticism, ethical issues, and equality between Paralympians and Olympians. Comparisons between OG and PG coverage are discussed and recommendations for future research provided.

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Fallon R. Mitchell, Paula M. van Wyk, and Sara Santarossa

.e., highly organized and competitive activities), while the Paralympics and Paralympians may be associated with pleasure and participation (i.e., broader, more loosely defined activities; Curry et al., 2002 ), despite athletes with a disability often devoting equal time and effort as able-bodied athletes to improving

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Lara Pomerleau-Fontaine, Gordon A. Bloom, and Danielle Alexander

literature as a way to capture the quality and the nature of an effective coach–athlete relationship ( Jowett & Carpenter, 2015 ; Jowett & Cockerill, 2003 ). To date, the majority of the literature has explored the coach–athlete relationship from the perspective of able-bodied athletes ( Kuhlin et al., 2020

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Joelle Leonie Flueck and Karsten Koehler

compared to able-bodied athletes during lower body/whole-body exercise. As such energy expenditure during exercise and other activities of daily living is likely reduced as well. 1 , 3 Anecdotally, most wheelchair athletes restrict their food intake to avoid weight gain. Therefore, it is not surprising

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Marie Lund Ohlsson, Jonas Danvind, and L. Joakim Holmberg

joint and the glenohumeral joint were modeled as spherical joints with no sliding. Therefore, no muscle activation was needed for translational stabilization of the joint. If sliding had been included in the model, the relative muscle forces might have been different. To conclude, for female able-bodied

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Keith Henschen, Michael Horvat, and Ron French

The purpose of this study was to visually compare the psychological profile of 33 male wheelchair athletes who competed in track and field events, with previous results of able-bodied athletes. Based on the data gathered using the Profile of Mood States and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory the wheelchair athletes demonstrated a profile similar to that of able-bodied athletes. This finding was discussed in terms of mental skills that may be developed by wheelchair athletes because of their injuries, possible influence of medication, and higher level of demonstrated anger.

Considering that the human body is made for movement, it is a universally accepted fact that sports are one of the activities that are extremely healthy for man. Unlike the machines invented by man, the human machine deteriorates with inactivity. (Monnazzi, 1982, p. 85)

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Marilyn A. Cooper, Claudine Sherrill, and David Marshall

Attitudes toward physical activity were examined in relation to sports classification (nonambulatory vs. ambulatory) and gender for elite cerebral palsied athletes and were compared to attitudes of elite Canadian able-bodied athletes (Alderman, 1970). Subjects were 165 CP adult athletes who competed in the 1983 National CP Games, Ft. Worth, Texas. Data were collected by interview on the Simon and Smoll Attitude Toward Physical Activity Scale (SATPA). SATPA answers were treated with MANOVA and ANOVA, and the Scheffé test was used for post hoc analysis. No significant difference was found among class, gender, and class-by-gender combinations in attitudes toward physical activity. Adult CP athletes have positive attitudes toward the total concept of physical activity, but are significantly less favorably disposed to physical activity as a thrill and as long and hard training than as social experience, health and fitness, beauty, and tension release.

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Kenneth S. Clarke

Sports have value to the individual, and the atypical individual with a disability merits the same opportunity to pursue these values as the so-called able-bodied. Sports therefore are justified on the assumption that they serve as a medium for developing desirable attitudes and behavior that contribute to the fullest utilization of one’s own health. Today’s sport leaders see a two-prong approach to the organization of these opportunities: (a) down with the barriers that keep the atypical athlete from participating and competing with the able-bodied athletes when talent and commitment are equal to the challenge, and (b) up with the sport programs from which, were it not for these adaptations, those with disabilities could not benefit from the values of sport participation.

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Nancy Spencer-Cavaliere and Danielle Peers

The inclusion of able-bodied athletes within disability sport, a phenomenon known as reverse integration, has sparked significant debate within adapted physical activity. Although researchers and practitioners have taken up positions for or against reverse integration, there is a lack of supporting research on the experiences of athletes who already play in such settings. In this study, we explore how competitive female athletes who have a disability experience reverse integration in Canadian wheelchair basketball. Athletic identity was used as the initial conceptual framework to guide semistructured interviews with nine participants. The results suggest that participation in this context contributed to positive athletic identities. Interviews also pointed to the unexpected theme of “what’s the difference?” that this sporting context provided a space for the questioning and creative negotiation of the categories of disability and able-bodiedness. Methodologically, this paper also explores the possibilities and challenges of inter- worldview and insider-outsider research collaboration.