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Yoshifumi Kijima, Ryoji Kiyama, Masaki Sekine, Toshiyo Tamura, Toshiro Fujimoto, Tetsuo Maeda and Tadasu Ohshige

patients is usually performed using a three-dimensional motion analysis system and a force plate in the laboratory. However, these methods are not used more frequently in clinical practice because of complications in measurement and data processing ( Krause et al., 2015 ). On the other hand, accelerometers

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Jonathan Sinclair, Sarah J. Hobbs, Laurence Protheroe, Christopher J. Edmundson and Andrew Greenhalgh

Biomechanical analysis requires the determination of specific foot contact events. This is typically achieved using force platform information; however, when force platforms are unavailable, alternative methods are necessary. A method was developed for the determination of gait events using an accelerometer mounted to the distal tibia, measuring axial accelerations. The aim of the investigation was to determine the efficacy of this method. Sixteen participants ran at 4.0 m/s ±5%. Synchronized tibial accelerations and vertical ground reaction forces were sampled at 1000 Hz as participants struck a force platform with their dominant foot. Events determined using the accelerometer, were compared with the corresponding events determined using the force platform. Mean errors of 1.68 and 5.46 ms for average and absolute errors were observed for heel strike and of –3.59 and 5.00 ms for toe-off. Mean and absolute errors of 5.18 and 11.47 ms were also found for the duration of the stance phase. Strong correlations (r = .96) were also observed between duration of stance obtained using the two different methods. The error values compare favorably to other alternative methods of predicting gait events. This suggests that shank-mounted accelerometers can be used to accurately and reliably detect gait events.

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Christopher A. Bailey and Patrick A. Costigan

The step-up-and-over test has been used successfully to examine knee function after knee injury. Knee function is quantified using the following variables extracted from force plate data: the maximal force exerted during the lift, the maximal impact force at landing, and the total time to complete the step. For various reasons, including space and cost, it is unlikely that all clinicians will have access to a force plate. The purpose of the study was to determine if the step-up-and-over test could be simplified by using an accelerometer. The step-up-and-over test was performed by 17 healthy young adults while being measured with both a force plate and a 3-axis accelerometer mounted at the low back. Results showed that the accelerometer and force plate measures were strongly correlated for all 3 variables (r = .90–.98, Ps < .001) and that the accelerometer values for the lift and impact indices were 6–7% higher (Ps < .01) and occurred 0.07–0.1 s later than the force plate (Ps < .05). The accelerometer returned values highly correlated to those from a force plate. Compared with a force plate, a wireless, 3-axis accelerometer is a less expensive and more portable system with which to measure the step-up-and-over test.

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Dylan Kobsar, Chad Olson, Raman Paranjape and John M. Barden

A single triaxial accelerometer has the ability to collect a large amount of continuous gait data to quantitatively assess the control of gait. Unfortunately, there is limited information on the validity of gait variability and fractal dynamics obtained from this device. The purpose of this study was to test the concurrent validity of the variability and fractal dynamic measures of gait provided by a triaxial accelerometer during a continuous 10 minute walk in older adults. Forty-one healthy older adults were fitted with a single triaxial accelerometer at the waist, as well as a criterion footswitch device before completing a ten minute overground walk. The concurrent validity of six outcome measures was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and 95% limits of agreement. All six dependent variables measured by the accelerometer displayed excellent agreement with the footswitch device. Mean parameters displayed the highest validity, followed by measures of variability and fractal dynamics in stride times and measures of variability and fractal dynamics in step times. These findings suggest that an accelerometer is a valid and unique device that has the potential to provide clinicians with valid quantitative data for assessing their clients’ gait.

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Meredith C. Peddie, Matthew Reeves, Millie K. Keown, Tracy L. Perry and C. Murray Skeaff

breaks of the appropriate intensity could be challenging in free-living studies as currently it would appear that the optimal intensity sits somewhere between the established cut-offs for light and moderate intensity activity identified for accelerometer data ( Freedson, Melanson, & Sirard, 1998

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Chelsea Steel, Carolina Bejarano and Jordan A. Carlson

Concurrent use of multiple person-worn sensors, such as combining data from Global Positioning Systems (GPS) trackers and accelerometers, is becoming more common in field-based physical activity research. The use of GPS trackers combined with accelerometers has been particularly useful in the

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Sarah G. Sanders, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Natalie H. Cole, Alena Kuhlemeier, Grace L. McCauley, M. Lee Van Horn and Alberta S. Kong

accelerometers are commonly used to measure activity amount and intensity in epidemiological studies. When measured by self-report, a large percentage of adolescents fail to meet activity recommendations: Only 27.1% high school students nationwide reported at least 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous

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Anna Pulakka, Eric J. Shiroma, Tamara B. Harris, Jaana Pentti, Jussi Vahtera and Sari Stenholm

Wearing the accelerometer on the (non-dominant) wrist is gaining popularity as an alternative to hip placement ( Doherty et al., 2017 ; Schrack et al., 2016 ; Troiano, McClain, Brychta, & Chen, 2014 ). Wrist-worn accelerometers have been shown to be valid in estimating physical activity energy

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Reed D. Gurchiek, Hasthika S. Rupasinghe Arachchige Don, Lasanthi C. R. Pelawa Watagoda, Ryan S. McGinnis, Herman van Werkhoven, Alan R. Needle, Jeffrey M. McBride and Alan T. Arnholt

than 3 m/s, and it is unknown how a similar approach might perform for sprinting. Thus, in this study, we investigated the concurrent validity of estimating v 0 and τ using an automated ML approach and wearable accelerometer data. An accelerometer-only method was pursued because removing the

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Kosuke Tamura, Jeffrey S. Wilson, Robin C. Puett, David B. Klenosky, William A. Harper and Philip J. Troped

accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) units can be used to quantify PA occurring on trails and thereby provide a better understanding of how community trails can support regular PA. 23 , 24 To date, researchers have concurrently used these devices to objectively assess how much PA occurs at home