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Jacob Edward Barkley, Sarah-Jeanne Salvy, Gabriel J. Sanders, Shounak Dey, Kyle-Patrick Von Carlowitz and Megan L. Williamson

Background:

There is evidence that the presence of a friend increases physical activity behavior in schoolaged children (≥ 8 years old) and in young adolescents. Little is known about the developmental trajectory of the effects of peer influences on children’s physical activity. Therefore, we sought to test the effect of the presence versus absence of a friend on physical activity in young children (≤ 6 years old).

Methods:

Physical activity was assessed, via accelerometery, in 3- to 6-year-old children, during 2 social conditions: alone and in the presence of a friend. During each condition, children were taken to a gymnasium and had free access to physical and sedentary activities for 30 minutes. In one condition children were tested alone (solo play), whereas in the other they were tested in the presence of a friend who had access to the same activities.

Results:

Children exhibited 54% greater (P < .02) average accelerometer counts during the friend condition (mean = 2629, SD = 1080 or 5.7 METs) than during the solo play condition (mean = 1707, SD = 1009 or 4.5 METs).

Conclusions:

The presence of a friend contributes to increased physical activity behavior in young children.

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Robyn F. Madden, Kelly A. Erdman, Jane Shearer, Lawrence L. Spriet, Reed Ferber, Ash T. Kolstad, Jessica L. Bigg, Alexander S.D. Gamble and Lauren C. Benson

Purpose: To determine the effects of low-dose caffeine supplementation (3 mg/kg body mass) consumed 1 h before the experiment on rating of perceived exertion (RPE), skills performance (SP), and physicality in male college ice hockey players. Methods: Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover experimental design, 15 college ice hockey players participated in SP trials and 14 participated in scrimmage (SC) trials on a total of 4 d, with prescribed ice hockey tasks occurring after a 1-h high-intensity practice. In the SP trials, time to complete and error rate for each drill of the validated Western Hockey League Combines Testing Standard were recorded. Peak head accelerations, trunk contacts, and offensive performance were quantified during the SC trials using accelerometery and video analysis. RPE was assessed in both the SP and SC trials. Results: RPE was significantly greater in the caffeine (11.3 [2.0]) than placebo (9.9 [1.9]) condition postpractice (P = .002), with a trend toward greater RPE in caffeine (16.9 [1.8]) than placebo (15.7 [2.8]) post-SC (P = .05). There was a greater number of peak head accelerations in the caffeine (4.35 [0.24]) than placebo (4.14 [0.24]) condition (P = .028). Performance times, error rate, and RPE were not different between intervention conditions during the SP trials (P > .05). Conclusions: A low dose of caffeine has limited impact on sport-specific skill performance and RPE but may enhance physicality during ice hockey SCs.

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Cory J. Greever, John Sirard and Sofiya Alhassan

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the temporal patterns of preschoolers’ physical activity (PA) levels during a typical outdoor free playtime.

Methods:

Baseline playtime accelerometer counts (4.3 ± 0.8 days) from 3 preschool PA intervention studies were used (n = 326 children, age = 4.0 ± 0.8 years). Data were collected using 15-second epochs and classified into sedentary, light, or moderate-tovigorous physical activity (MVPA). Patterns of change during playtime were analyzed using orthogonal polynomial comparisons.

Results:

For all ages, there was a U-shaped pattern of change for the percent of epochs classified as sedentary [F(1, 323) = 47.12, P < .001) and an inverted U-shaped pattern of change for the percent of epochs classified as MVPA [F(1,323) = 32.15, P < .001]. Age-stratified analyses indicated that the 3-year-olds maintained the decrease in sedentary time [F(2,323) = 6.408, P = .002] and the increase in MVPA [F(2,323) = 3.2, P = .04] to a greater extent than the 4- and 5-year-olds.

Conclusions:

Preschool children gradually became more active during the first 10 to 15 minutes of outdoor gross motor playtime and less active over the final 10 to 15 minutes of playtime. During the second half of playtime 3-year-olds maintained these changes to a greater degree than 4- and 5-year-olds.

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Herculina S. Kruger, Lize Havemann-Nel, Chrisna Ravyse, Sarah J. Moss and Michael Tieland

Background:

Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women.

Methods:

In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) were randomly selected. Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, dietary intakes, and physical activity were measured. Activity was also measured by combined accelerometery/heart rate monitoring (ActiHeart), and HIV status was tested. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure appendicular skeletal mass (ASM). Sarcopenia was defined according to a recently derived SA cutpoint of ASM index (ASM/height squared) < 4.94 kg/m2.

Results:

In total, 8.9% of the women were sarcopenic, decreasing to 8.1% after exclusion of participants who were HIV positive. In multiple regressions with ASM index, grip strength, and gait speed, respectively, as dependent variables, only activity energy expenditure (β = .27) was significantly associated with ASM index. Age (β = –.50) and activity energy expenditure (β = .17) were significantly associated with gait speed. Age (β = –.11) and lean mass (β = .21) were significantly associated with handgrip strength.

Conclusions:

Sarcopenia was prevalent among these SA women and was associated with low physical activity energy expenditure.

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Marilyn A. Roth and Jennifer S. Mindell

Background:

Use of objective physical activity measures is rising. We investigated the representativeness of survey participants who wore an accelerometer.

Methods:

4273 adults aged 16+ from a cross-sectional survey of a random, nationally representative general population sample in England in 2008 were categorized as 1) provided sufficient accelerometry data [4−7 valid days (10+ hrs/d), n = 1724], 2) less than that (n = 237), or 3) declined (n = 302). Multinomial logistic regression identified demographic, socioeconomic, health, lifestyle, and biological correlates of participants in these latter 2 groups, compared with those who provided sufficient accelerometry data (4+ valid days).

Results:

Those in the random subsample offered the accelerometer were older and more likely to be retired and to report having a longstanding limiting illness than the rest of the adult Health Survey for England participants. Compared with those providing sufficient accelerometery data, those wearing the accelerometer less were younger, less likely to be in paid employment, and more likely to be a current smoker. Those who declined to wear an accelerometer did not differ significantly from those who wore it for sufficient time.

Conclusions:

We found response bias in wearing the accelerometers for sufficient time, but refusers did not differ from those providing sufficient data. Differences should be acknowledged by data users.

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International Sport Coaching Journal

DIGEST VOLUME 6, ISSUE #1

); and (ii) analyse the mediation effect of accelerometery-based physical activity (PA) on associations. The study was conducted in Spain with 415 children (9.1 ;± 0.4 years) and 853 adolescents (13.6 ± 1.6 years). Total accelerometer-based ST was positively associated with global adiposity in children

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Kara L. Gavin, Julian Wolfson, Mark Pereira, Nancy Sherwood and Jennifer A. Linde

with higher weight may over report MVPA. 28 At baseline and 12 months, approximately half of the individuals in this sample were randomized to wear accelerometers for 7 days to assess the validity of this questionnaire. At 12 months, accelerometery measured MVPA was sufficiently correlated with the

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Orlagh Farmer, Donna Duffy, Kevin Cahill, Diarmuid Lester, Sarahjane Belton and Wesley O’Brien

(Field Training and Data Collection) Prior to data collection, six field staff underwent a rigorous and robust field researcher training workshop in the measurement protocol associated with FMS, self-report questionnaires, FG discussions, accelerometery, and body composition. This involved an objective