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Laura Basterfield, Ashley J. Adamson, Mark S. Pearce and John J. Reilly

Background:

Accelerometry is rapidly becoming the instrument of choice for measuring physical activity in children. However, as limited data exist on the minimum number of days accelerometry required to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity, we aimed to quantify the number of days of recording required to estimate both habitual physical activity and habitual sedentary behavior in primary school children.

Methods:

We measured physical activity and sedentary behavior over 7 days in 291 6- to 8-year-olds using Actigraph accelerometers. Between-day intraclass reliability coefficients were calculated and averaged across all combinations of days.

Results:

Although reliability increased with time, 3 days of recording provided reliabilities for volume of activity, moderate-vigorous intensity activity, and sedentary behavior of 68%, 71%, and 73%, respectively.

Conclusions:

For our sample and setting, 3 days accelerometry provided reliable estimates of the main constructs of physical activity and sedentary behavior.

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José Marmeleira, Luis Laranjo, Olga Marques and Catarina Pereira

The main purpose of our study was to quantify, by using accelerometry, daily physical activity (PA) in adults with visual impairments. Sixty-three adults (34.9% women) who are blind (18–65 years) wore an accelerometer for at least 3 days (minimum of 10 hr per day), including 1 weekend day. Nineteen participants (~30%) reached the recommendation of 30 min per day of PA, when counting every minute of moderate or greater intensity. No one achieved that goal when considering bouts of at least 10 min. No differences were found between genders in PA measures. Chronological age, age of blindness onset, and body mass index were not associated with PA. We conclude that adults who are blind have low levels of PA and are considerably less active compared with the general population. Health promotion strategies should be implemented to increase daily PA for people with visual impairments.

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Melody Oliver, Hannah Badland, Suzanne Mavoa, Mitch J. Duncan and Scott Duncan

Background:

Global positioning systems (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), and accelerometers are powerful tools to explain activity within a built environment, yet little integration of these tools has taken place. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of combining GPS, GIS, and accelerometry to understand transport-related physical activity (TPA) in adults.

Methods:

Forty adults wore an accelerometer and portable GPS unit over 7 consecutive days and completed a demographics questionnaire and 7-day travel log. Accelerometer and GPS data were extracted for commutes to/from workplace and integrated into a GIS database. GIS maps were generated to visually explore physical activity intensity, GPS speeds and routes traveled.

Results:

GPS, accelerometer, and survey data were collected for 37 participants. Loss of GPS data was substantial due to a range of methodological issues, such as low battery life, signal drop out, and participant noncompliance. Nonetheless, greater travel distances and significantly higher speeds were observed for motorized trips when compared with TPA.

Conclusions:

Pragmatic issues of using GPS monitoring to understand TPA behaviors and methodological recommendations for future research were identified. Although methodologically challenging, the combination of GPS monitoring, accelerometry and GIS technologies holds promise for understanding TPA within the built environment.

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Jonathan M. Williams, Michael Gara and Carol Clark

accelerometry offers a valid measurement method for balance. Furthermore, the reliability of such methods is high across a range of tasks from double-leg, single-leg to tandem stance. 6 Despite this, highly dynamic balance tasks such as hop landing have yet to be investigated. Testing single-leg hop landing is

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Marcin Straczkiewicz, Jacek Urbanek and Jaroslaw Harezlak

Objective monitoring of physical activity relies frequently on movement data captured by the tri-axial, body-worn accelerometers representing accelerations sampled between 10 and 160 observations per second ( John, Sasaki, Staudenmayer, Mavilia, & Freedson, 2013 ). Such raw accelerometry data is

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Wayne Brown and Matt Greig

The epidemiology and etiology of ankle sprain injuries in soccer have been well described. Retrospective analysis of epidemiological data identified an English Premier League player sustaining a high lateral ankle sprain. GPS data collated during the training session in which the injury was sustained, and subsequent rehabilitation sessions, were analyzed to quantify uniaxial PlayerLoad metrics. The injured player revealed a 3:1 asymmetrical loading pattern in the mediolateral plane and multiaxial high loading events which might present the inciting event to injury. The high magnitude, asymmetrical and multiplanar loading is consistent with lateral ankle sprain etiology.

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Claire L. Cleland, Sara Ferguson, Paul McCrorie, Jasper Schipperijn, Geraint Ellis and Ruth F. Hunter

Accelerometry as a device-based measure overcomes many of the challenges that self-reported measurement relies on, such as survey completion and accurate memory recall. This is particularly the case for older adults aged ≥60 years ( United Nations Population Fund, 2012 ) who may have difficulties

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Ignacio Perez-Pozuelo, Thomas White, Kate Westgate, Katrien Wijndaele, Nicholas J. Wareham and Soren Brage

Wrist-worn accelerometry has become a feasible option for the objective measurement of physical activity in large-scale epidemiological studies, such as Pelotas birth cohorts, the UK Biobank, and Whitehall II ( da Silva et al., 2014 ; Doherty et al., 2017 ; Menai et al., 2017 ). Additionally

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Kevin C. Deere, Kimberly Hannam, Jessica Coulson, Alex Ireland, Jamie S. McPhee, Charlotte Moss, Mark H. Edwards, Elaine Dennison, Cyrus Cooper, Adrian Sayers, Matthijs Lipperts, Bernd Grimm and Jon H. Tobias

Physical activity (PA) may need to produce high impacts to be osteogenic. The aim of this study was to identify threshold(s) for defining high impact PA for future analyses in the VIBE (Vertical Impact and Bone in the Elderly) study, based on home recordings with triaxial accelerometers. Recordings were obtained from 19 Master Athlete Cohort (MAC; mean 67.6 years) and 15 Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS; mean 77.7 years) participants. Data cleaning protocols were developed to exclude artifacts. Accelerations expressed in g units were categorized into three bands selected from the distribution of positive Y-axis peak accelerations. Data were available for 6.6 and 4.4 days from MAC and HCS participants respectively, with approximately 14 hr recording daily. Three-fold more 0.5−1.0g impacts were observed in MAC versus HCS, 20-fold more 1.0−1.5g impacts, and 140-fold more impacts ≥ 1.5g. Our analysis protocol successfully distinguishes PA levels in active and sedentary older individuals.

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Lisa Price, Katrina Wyatt, Jenny Lloyd, Charles Abraham, Siobhan Creanor, Sarah Dean and Melvyn Hillsdon

Assessing children’s physical activity (PA) using accelerometry is now common place in cohort studies ( 2 , 6 , 9 ) and randomized controlled trials ( 14 , 32 ). However, researchers still face challenges regarding choice of minimum wear-time criteria and participant compliance (ie, those who meet