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Bradley J. Cardinal

Kinesiology is a field 1 focused on physical activity and its impact on health, society, and quality of life. But do all people have equal opportunities to access and experience physical activity? Do physical activity settings allow people to freely express themselves? Are the benefits of

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Ugo Lachapelle

Background:

Previous research has shown that public transit use may be associated with active transportation. Access to a car may influence active transportation of transit riders.

Methods:

Using the 2009 United States National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), transit users ≥ 16 years old (n = 25,550) were categorized according to driver status and number of cars and drivers in the household. This typology ranged from choice transit riders (ie, “fully motorized drivers”) to transit-dependent riders (ie, “unmotorized nondriver”). Transit trips, walking trips, and bicycling trips of transit users are estimated in negative binomial models against the car availability typology.

Results:

Sixteen percent of participants took transit in the past month; most (86%) lived in car-owning households. As income increased, car availability also increased. Transit user groups with lower car availability were generally more likely than fully motorized drivers to take more public transit, walking, and bicycle trips. Transit riders have varying levels of vehicle access; their use of combinations of alternative modes of transportation fluctuates accordingly. Transit-dependent individuals without cars or sharing cars used active transportation more frequently than car owners.

Conclusion:

Policies to reduce vehicle ownership in households may enable increases in the use of alternative modes of transportation for transit users, even when cars are still owned.

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Carmen D. Harris, Prabasaj Paul, Xingyou Zhang, and Janet E. Fulton

Background:

Fewer than 30% of U.S. youth meet the recommendation to be active > 60 minutes/day. Access to parks may encourage higher levels of physical activity.

Purpose:

To examine differences in park access among U.S. school-age youth, by demographic characteristics and urbanicity of block group.

Methods:

Park data from 2012 were obtained from TomTom, Incorporated. Population data were obtained from the 2010 U.S. Census and American Community Survey 2006–2010. Using a park access score for each block group based on the number of national, state or local parks within one-half mile, we examined park access among youth by majority race/ethnicity, median household income, median education, and urbanicity of block groups.

Results:

Overall, 61.3% of school-age youth had park access—64.3% in urban, 36.5% in large rural, 37.8% in small rural, and 35.8% in isolated block groups. Park access was higher among youth in block groups with higher median household income and higher median education.

Conclusion:

Urban youth are more likely to have park access. However, park access also varies by race/ethnicity, median education, and median household. Considering both the demographics and urbanicity may lead to better characterization of park access and its association with physical activity among youth.

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Shota Tanaka, Hiroki Ueta, Ryo Sagisaka, Shuji Sakanashi, Takahiro Hara, and Hideharu Tanaka

access during SCA treatment of Kendo players. Therefore, measuring the time to the first compression, time until the first shock, duration of equipment removal, and CPR quality—including rate, depth, recoil, and hand positions—were recorded as outcome measurements. We hypothesized that protective

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Li Yi, Tyler B. Mason, Chih-Hsiang Yang, Daniel Chu, and Genevieve F. Dunton

environment features, neighborhood parks and open space have been frequently examined due to their roles in providing exercise facilities and venues for leisure time activities (eg, team sports, unstructured play). 4 Compared with adults, children and adolescents typically have access to fewer PA resources

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Andrea Wendt, Luiza I.C. Ricardo, Caroline S. Costa, Alan G. Knuth, Maria C.M. Tenório, and Inácio Crochemore-Silva

and cycling) and/or community-based public programs providing PA classes, walking groups, and other activities. These strategies could improve PA levels by increasing opportunities or facilitating choices in practice. 6 The awareness of a public community-based program or the perceived access of

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Patrick C. Gentile, Nicholas R. Buzzelli, Sean R. Sadri, and Nathan A. Towery

sports reporters needed to undertake in order to generate daily content during a period in which live events were nonexistent. In addition, this pandemic has caused disruption to the core of a sportswriter’s job—access to players and relationship building. Since in-person access has been severely limited

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Christopher Coutts, Timothy Chapin, Mark Horner, and Crystal Taylor

Background:

Parks and other forms of green space are among the key environmental supports for recreational physical activity. Measurements of green space access have provided mixed results as to the influence of green space access on physical activity.

Methods:

This cross-sectional study uses a geographical information system (GIS) to examine the relationships between the amount of and distance to green space and county-level (n = 67) moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the state of Florida.

Results:

The gross amount of green space in a county (P < .05) and the amount of green space within defined distances of where people live (1/4 mile, P < .01; 1/2 mile, P < .05; 1 mile, P < .01) were positively associated with self-reported levels of MVPA. Distance to the nearest green space and the amount of green space furthest from where people live (10 miles) were not significantly associated with MVPA. All measures were weighted by the population living in census tracts.

Conclusions:

The results suggest that there is an association between the accessibility created by having more green space closer to home and MVPA, but this holds only for areas up to and including 1 mile from home.

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Rachel Tinius, Kolbi Edens, Kim Link, M. Susan Jones, Scott Lyons, Tatum Rebelle, Kevin J. Pearson, and Jill Maples

many misconceptions regarding this topic still exist. 11 Thus, the scientific evidence supporting PA during pregnancy does not appear to be translating into the clinic and the community. Women in rural areas experience poorer obstetric health outcomes and have less access to health care resources

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David Welch Suggs Jr.

Sports reporters depend on access to events and sources as much or more than any other news professional. Over the past few years, some sports organizations have attempted to restrict such access, as well as what reporters can publish via social media. In the digital era, access and publishing autonomy, as institutionalized concepts, are evolving rapidly. Hypotheses tying access and work practices to reporters’ perceptions of the legitimacy they experience are developed and tested via a structural equation model, using responses to a survey of journalists in American intercollegiate athletics and observed dimensions of access and autonomy to measure a latent variable of legitimacy. The model suggests that reporters have mixed views about whether they possess the legitimacy they need to do their jobs.