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G. Linda Rikard and Dominique Banville

The first year of teaching is a critical time for professional growth and teacher development requiring emotional and pedagogical support from an experienced mentor. To serve this need, many school districts and counties across the US have developed induction programs for beginning teachers. This study examined 20 First Year Teachers’ (FYT’s) experiences in a mentoring induction program conducted from 2006 to 2008. Data included phone interviews, questionnaires, and one-on-one interviews. Kram’s mentoring framework provided the theoretical model for describing stages of mentor-mentee relationships. In addition, a Continuum of mentor practices was developed to categorize the levels of mentor effectiveness as described by FYTs. Based on their perceptions, the effectiveness of mentoring practices varied greatly for these participants: nine teachers received adequate mentoring, while the remaining 11 teachers’ experiences indicated deficiencies. Mentors were trained and specifically matched with FYTs, yet, findings indicated that accountability measures were needed to adequately serve most of these FYTs.

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Mireille Blais

Most of the existing ecological studies have been conducted during class instructional time. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe (a) how students (N = 102; grade 2–4) engaged in a strategy named Health Passport taking place mainly outside of school time and (b) how four physical education teachers held students accountable for their involvement in physical activity during a long period of time (3–7 months). An inductive approach guided the data analysis, based on observational notes, interviews, and the content of the students’ Health Passport. The results indicated that children displayed five different profiles of involvement in the completion of the tasks related to their passport. Physical education teachers chose to trust students’ self-management capacity instead of using a formal evaluation to hold them accountable. The experiment of the Health Passport showed that physical education teachers can put together and implement accountability strategies to support students’ regular practice of physical activity at home.

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Richard Tinning and Daryl Siedentop

Doyle’s concepts of task structures and the notion of accountability were applied to the student teaching process. Qualitative research strategies were used to gather data for one intern in two settings across an entire academic term. Three main task systems were identified. The contingencies supporting the task structures were less readily identified than for previous classroom and gymnasium research. Accountability systems tended to be less formal. The intern must balance the demands of task systems that produce consequences from pupils, the cooperating teacher, and the university supervisor. Monitoring and feedback from the supervisor and cooperating teacher appear to play an important informal role in the development of intern performance across time.

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Phillip Ward, Shannon Smith, and Tom Sharpe

An A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to evaluate whether accountability, in the form of public posting, was effective in improving football players’ performance in successfully blocking the forward momentum of the defense and in running routes to a criterion at, or greater than, 90% correct. Five wide receivers on a college football team participated in the study. Data were collected during practice sessions and weekly games. The players’ game performance was not intervened on and served as a measure of both the generality of the intervention and as a product measure of the practice performance. The data show that during public posting the players’ performances met or exceeded the criterion established for practices and that this criterion performance generalized to the game setting. These results support previous findings on tasks and accountability. Moreover, the public posting intervention was easy to implement by the coaches and welcomed by the players.

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Athena Yiamouyiannis, Glenna G. Bower, Joanne Williams, Dina Gentile, and Heather Alderman

Accreditation and accountability in sport management education are necessary to ensure academic rigor and can serve as vehicles by which sport management educators examine and enhance the academic quality of their programs. This paper addresses this topic first with a discussion of the need for accreditation and a review of the accrediting agencies and other entities involved (CHEA, USDE, regional and specialized accrediting agencies, and state involvement). Next is a brief overview of COSMA’s accreditation process, and then a focus on direct learning outcomes and assessment tools. Becoming more familiar with the value and purpose of accreditation in general, as well as the specifics of the COSMA accreditation process as it relates to the common professional components (CPCs) and direct learning outcome assessments, can help with obtaining faculty commitment to the accreditation process and with continued enhancement of the academic quality of sport management programs.

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Keven A. Prusak, Todd Pennington, Susan Vincent Graser, Aaron Beighle, and Charles F. Morgan

Siedentop and Locke (1997) proposed three critical elements that must exist in our profession to make a difference and achieve systemic success in physical education (SSPE): (a) quality PE in the schools, (b) effective physical education teacher education (PETE) programs, and (c) a working relationship between the two. Using Cuban’s (1992) curriculum change and stability framework, this qualitative study examines the existence of a program that has achieved all three elements in the southwestern US. For over three decades some seventy-two teachers in dozens of schools have yearly served over 40,000 children. This study revealed a fully functioning model consisting of four key, interdependent components driven by a system of accountability measures. The results of the SSPE model—quality PE for children—is achieved by (a) district-wide mandated curriculum, methodologies and language, (b) well-defined district PE coordinator roles, (c) a partnership university, and (d) frequent, ongoing professional development. Results of this study strengthen Siedentop and Locke’s (1997) recommendation for collaborative efforts between universities and partner school districts and provide a model to guide and manage the curriculum change process in K-6 PE.

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Darrell W. Crouch, Phillip Ward, and Craig A. Patrick

In this study, three variations of a withdrawal design were used to assess the effects that group instruction, peer-dyads, and peer-mediated accountability had on the number of trials performed, and how successful those trials were, during one-minute trials of volleyball skills. Peer-mediated accountability consisted of teacher-established goals, peer recording of performance, public posting of student performance, and special content-related activities that served as public recognition of achievement. Participants were 67 elementary school students in grades 4 through 6. Results indicated that students performed more trials and were generally more successful in the peer-mediated accountability condition than during either the peer-dyads or group instruction. Findings are discussed in terms of the contingent relation between tasks and consequences created by the peer-mediated accountability variable.

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Phillip Ward, Shannon L. Smith, Kemal Makasci, and Darrell W. Crouch

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of peer-mediated accountability (PMA) on average male and female students and low skilled female students during the performance of the lay-up in basketball. A multiple baseline design was used to assess the effects of PMA on the number of trials performed and the percentage of correct trials. Participants were 9 elementary school students in Grades 4 and 5. Peer-mediated accountability was effective in increasing the opportunities to respond for both average and low skilled students but did not change the percentage of correct performances by the students. These results support previous findings that suggest that, though PMA is an effective strategy to promote opportunities to respond, it is an inappropriate strategy to use when students cannot perform the skill. An analysis of the data also revealed that the lower skilled students performed a similar number of trials as their counterparts.

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Peter A. Hastie and Nik Vlaisavljevic

The ecological model was used to examine the relationship between subject matter expertise and the conduct of a teacher’s instructional task system. Nine teachers were studied when teaching activities with which they self-reported as having higher or lower levels of subject matter expertise. The findings suggest that higher levels of expertise by teachers in certain areas result in two specific changes in the academic work of physical education. The first is a provision of more tasks, and particularly more extending tasks, while the second is an accountability focus centered more so on the quality of the performance than a level of participation or effort.

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Peter A. Hastie and John E. Saunders

The concept of academic work has been developed as a means of examining the curriculum used in classrooms. Tousignant’s study of secondary school physical education classes was the first to apply this concept to teaching physical education. This paper reports on a study that examined the program in action in a junior elite-sport setting (a state-level volleyball squad). The conceptualization of instructional, managerial, and transitional task systems developed in physical education classes was found to be relevant in this setting. In addition, a further task system, the match-play task system, was identified. A subset of the instructional task system identified as role-specific instructional tasks also emerged. The paper concludes that similar task systems operate in physical education and coaching and that the concept of accountability is important in understanding both teaching and coaching processes.