The goal of physical education is to instill physical literacy within students. As an important motivation framework, achievement goal theory has been widely used to understand and explain students’ cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. In this paper, we reviewed studies examining achievement goals and outcomes in K-12 physical education settings. First, we provide a brief review of the historical development of the achievement goal theoretical models (the dichotomous model, the trichotomous model, the 2 × 2 model, and the 3 × 2 model). Then, we synthesize consequences, antecedents, and interactive factors of each achievement goal construct as well as the influences of gender, age, and culture on students’ achievement goals. Finally, we discuss implications for practice and future research. We hope our review can inform physical educators and researchers and assist the application of achievement goal theory into practice.
Jiling Liu, Ping Xiang, Jihye Lee and Weidong Li
Daniel Milton, Paul R. Appleton, Anna Bryant and Joan L. Duda
environmental dimensions emphasized within achievement goal theory (AGT) ( Ames, 1992 ; Nicholls, 1989 ) and self-determination theory (SDT) ( Deci & Ryan, 1985 , 2000 ). Duda’s conceptualization suggests that the motivational climate created is multidimensional and can be more or less “empowering” and
Mary E. Rudisill
For 30 years I have been interested in achievement motivation and factors that influence children’s motivation to move and learn to move. This work has been grounded in achievement goal theory, which explains what motivates individuals by how success is perceived and competence is valued (Nicholls, 1989). According to this theory, behavioral outcomes are related to goal-oriented behaviors described as task (e.g., competence and success are self-referenced) or ego (e.g., competence and success are based on the reference of others). A task-oriented goal perspective has been associated with increased enjoyment and intrinsic motivation inmovement-related activities such as sport and physical activity. Achievement goal theory also proposes that environments can be structured to emphasize factors that determine one’s goal involvement and subsequent cognitions, affect, and behaviors. In this review, I discuss mastery motivational climates and the research we have conducted related to this topic over the years.
Darren C. Treasure, Joan L. Duda, Howard K. Hall, Glyn C. Roberts, Carol Ames and Martin L. Maehr
In a recent article, Harwood, Hardy, and Swain (2000) presented what they termed a critical analysis of the conceptualization and measurement of achievement goals in sport. The purpose of the present article is to challenge their interpretation of achievement goal theory and to question many of their subsequent recommendations. Specifically, the present response will focus on Harwood et al.’s (a) interpretation of Nicholls’ personal theories of achievement; (b) their contention that task involvement cannot exist in competitive sport; (c) the proposed tripartite conceptualization of goal involvement states; (d) their understanding of the relationship between the way an individual conceptualizes ability and the foundation of dispositional goal orientations; and (e) their criticisms of the way dispositional goal orientations have been measured in sport. Theoretical frameworks are always a work in progress. To this end, we concur with the spirit of Harwood et al.’s article which implies that our conceptual models should be continuously questioned, tested, and extended. However, we believe their interpretation and recommendations do little to enhance our conceptual understanding of achievement goal theory in sport.
Christine E. Johnson, Heather E. Erwin, Lindsay Kipp and Aaron Beighle
We used achievement goal theory to examine students’ physical activity (PA) motivation and physical education (PE) enjoyment. Purposes included: 1) determine whether schools with different pedagogical approaches varied in student perceptions of mastery and performance climate dimensions, enjoyment, and PA; 2) examine gender and grade differences in enjoyment and PA; and 3) determine if dimensions of motivational climate predicted enjoyment and PA levels in PE, controlling for gender and grade. Youth (n = 290, 150 girls) from three southeast United States middle schools wore a pedometer and completed a motivational climate and enjoyment questionnaire. Boys were more active and enjoyed PE more than girls, and 7th/8th grade students were more active than 6th grade students. Enjoyment was positively predicted by teacher’s emphasis on two mastery climate dimensions, controlling for gender. PE activity time was predicted by two performance climate dimensions, controlling for gender and grade. Implications for practice are discussed.
Martin J. Lee, Jean Whitehead, Nikos Ntoumanis and Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis
This research examines the value-expressive function of attitudes and achievement goal theory in predicting moral attitudes. In Study 1, the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire (YSVQ; Lee, Whitehead, & Balchin, 2000) was modified to measure moral, competence, and status values. In Study 2, structural equation modeling on data from 549 competitors (317 males, 232 females) aged 12–15 years showed that moral and competence values predicted prosocial attitudes, whereas moral (negatively) and status values (positively) predicted antisocial attitudes. Competence and status values predicted task and ego orientation, respectively, and task and ego orientation partially mediated the effect of competence values on prosocial attitudes and of status values on antisocial attitudes, respectively. The role of sport values is discussed, and new research directions are proposed.
Nathan Smith, Damien Tessier, Yannis Tzioumakis, Eleanor Quested, Paul Appleton, Philippe Sarrazin, Athanasios Papaioannou and Joan L. Duda
This article outlines the development and validation of the Multidimensional Motivational Climate Observation System (MMCOS). Drawing from an integration of the dimensions of the social environment emphasized within achievement goal theory and self-determination theory (as assumed within Duda’s  conceptualization of “empowering” and “disempowering” climates), the MMCOS was developed to enable an objective assessment of the coach-created motivational environment in sport. Study 1 supported the initial validity and reliability of the newly developed observation system. Study 2 further examined the interobserver reliability and factorial structure of the MMCOS. Study 3 explored the predictive validity of the observational system in relation to athletes’ reported basic psychological need satisfaction. Overall, the results of these studies provide preliminary support for the inter- and intraobserver reliability, as well as factorial and predictive validity of the MMCOS. Suggestions for the use of this observational system in future research in sport are provided.
Darren C. Treasure
A total of 119 female and 114 male children (N = 233) attending six elementary schools responded to a questionnaire on their perceptions of the motivational climate of their physical education class, beliefs about the causes of success, satisfaction, perceived ability, and attitude toward the class. Students who perceived a climate oriented toward high mastery/moderate performance reported a positive attitude toward the class, high perceived ability, the belief that effort and ability cause success, and feelings of satisfaction. In contrast, students who perceived a climate oriented toward high performance/low mastery focused on ability as a cause of success, reported a negative attitude toward the class, and feelings of boredom. The pattern and strength of the findings suggest that to increase the motivation of children, physical educators should look to promote mastery, and de-emphasize performance-oriented cues in the achievement setting.
Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen and Ørnulf N. Seippel
& Dillon, 2012 ; Pan, Tsai, Chu, & Hsieh, 2011 ; Valentini & Rudisill, 2004 ). In this study, we employ tenets from achievement goal theory (AGT) and self-determination theory (SDT) to explore what motivational pathways support social inclusion (SI) and pedagogical inclusion (PI) in PE as perceived by
Cassidy Preston and Jessica Fraser-Thomas
taking advantage of teachable moments ( Trottier & Robitaille, 2014 ). Finally, coaches play a critical role in creating an optimal learning environment for athletes. Youth sport environments have been examined extensively through two key theories: achievement goal theory (AGT; Nicholls, 1984 ) and self