Research in achievement goal perspective theory suggests that the creation of a caring/task-involving (C/TI) climate results in more advantageous psychological and behavioral responses relative to an ego-involving (EI) climate; however, research has not yet examined the physiological consequences associated with psychological stress in relation to climate. Given the possible health and fitness implications of certain physiological stress responses, it is critical to understand this association. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether an EI climate procures increases in the stress-responsive hormone cortisol, as well as negative psychological changes, following the learning of a new skill, compared with a C/TI climate. Participants (n = 107) were randomized to a C/TI or an EI climate in which they learned how to juggle for 30 min over the course of 2 hr. Seven salivary cortisol samples were collected during this period. Results indicated that EI participants experienced greater cortisol responses after the juggling session and significantly greater anxiety, stress, shame, and self-consciousness relative to C/TI participants. In contrast, the C/TI participants reported greater enjoyment, effort, self-confidence, and interest and excitement regarding future juggling than the EI participants. These findings indicate that motivational climates may have a significant impact on both the physiological and psychological responses of participants.
Candace M. Hogue, Mary D. Fry, Andrew C. Fry, and Sarah D. Pressman
Sheryl Miller and Mary Fry
-related reasons. Achievement goal perspective theory (AGPT; Nicholls, 1989 ; Roberts, 2012 ) is one framework that has been employed in exercise psychology research to consider how to optimize individuals’ motivation in physical activity settings. Two distinct motivational climates can be created by instructors
Mary D. Fry, Candace M. Hogue, Susumu Iwasaki, and Gloria B. Solomon
stressor, including altering the meaning or significance of the stressor. There is a scarcity of research examining specific, controllable factors that facilitate the development of psychological coping skills in athletes. A body of research utilizing Nicholls’ achievement goal perspective theory (AGPT
E. Whitney G. Moore and Karen Weiller-Abels
Youth’s likelihood of participating in sport increases when they maintain a focus on enjoyment, learning, and effort (i.e., task goal orientation) rather than how they compare to others and norms (i.e., ego goal orientation). Achievement goal theory research consistently illustrates the significant influence of leader-created motivational climates on their participants’ goal orientation adoption. However, the influence of caring climate perceptions by highly competitive adolescent athletes on their goal orientation adoption has yet to be examined. Thus, this study assessed how competitive, adolescent soccer players’ perceptions of the climate as caring, task-, and ego-involving predicted their adoption of task and ego goal orientations. Players (N = 152, 62% female, 12–14 years of age) in the Olympic Development Program completed a survey that included measures of the caring climate, task-involving and ego-involving motivational climates, and task and ego goal orientations in soccer. Path analyses revealed males’ task goal orientation was significantly predicted by caring and task-involving climate perceptions. Females’ task goal orientation was significantly predicted by their task-involving climate perceptions. Ego goal orientation was significantly predicted by all athletes’ ego-involving climate perceptions. This is the first study to support the importance of fostering a high caring, as well as high task-involving, and low ego-involving climate when working with highly competitive adolescent athletes to keep their task goal orientation high. Research replicating this study is warranted to provide further support for these relationships longitudinally and across ages and sexes.
Kristen Lucas and E. Whitney G. Moore
prior extensions of Achievement Goal Perspective Theory–based research in the exercise domain ( Huddleston, Fry, & Brown, 2012 ), the significant relationships seen among athletes by these prior researchers informed the relationships hypothesized in the exercise domain. Taken together with the
Susumu Iwasaki, Mary D. Fry, and Candace M. Hogue
both respect and desire feedback from their coaches (i.e., demonstrate coachability). One widely studied theory in sport with practical implications for coaches and athletes is Nicholls’ ( 1984 , 1989 ) achievement goal perspective theory (AGPT). Nicholls postulated ( 1984 , 1989 ) that the leader