The goal of physical education is to instill physical literacy within students. As an important motivation framework, achievement goal theory has been widely used to understand and explain students’ cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. In this paper, we reviewed studies examining achievement goals and outcomes in K-12 physical education settings. First, we provide a brief review of the historical development of the achievement goal theoretical models (the dichotomous model, the trichotomous model, the 2 × 2 model, and the 3 × 2 model). Then, we synthesize consequences, antecedents, and interactive factors of each achievement goal construct as well as the influences of gender, age, and culture on students’ achievement goals. Finally, we discuss implications for practice and future research. We hope our review can inform physical educators and researchers and assist the application of achievement goal theory into practice.
Jiling Liu, Ping Xiang, Jihye Lee, and Weidong Li
Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen, and Ørnulf N. Seippel
& Dillon, 2012 ; Pan, Tsai, Chu, & Hsieh, 2011 ; Valentini & Rudisill, 2004 ). In this study, we employ tenets from achievement goal theory (AGT) and self-determination theory (SDT) to explore what motivational pathways support social inclusion (SI) and pedagogical inclusion (PI) in PE as perceived by
Timothy M. Dasinger and Melinda A. Solmon
with prior research; for instance, Endler ( 1997 ) surmised that feelings of anxiety emerge when an individual is not confident in their ability (i.e., demonstrates low perceived competence). Given that concern about ability was a significant source of anxiety, tenets from achievement goal theory (AGT
Cassidy Preston and Jessica Fraser-Thomas
taking advantage of teachable moments ( Trottier & Robitaille, 2014 ). Finally, coaches play a critical role in creating an optimal learning environment for athletes. Youth sport environments have been examined extensively through two key theories: achievement goal theory (AGT; Nicholls, 1984 ) and self
E. Whitney G. Moore and Karen Weiller-Abels
, 2007 ; Elkind, 2007 ). As a result, Temple and Crane ( 2016 ) called for research “examining interactions between the individual and the environment” (p. 856). Researchers in sport psychology have utilized the two motivational climates of achievement goal theory ( Ames, 1992 ; Nicholls, 1989 ) to
Daniel Milton, Paul R. Appleton, Anna Bryant, and Joan L. Duda
environmental dimensions emphasized within achievement goal theory (AGT) ( Ames, 1992 ; Nicholls, 1989 ) and self-determination theory (SDT) ( Deci & Ryan, 1985 , 2000 ). Duda’s conceptualization suggests that the motivational climate created is multidimensional and can be more or less “empowering” and
Stephen Macdonald and Justine Allen
goal theory (AGT) ( Nicholls, 1989 ) and self-determination theory (SDT) ( Ryan & Deci, 2000 ) (for reviews see Gilchrist & Mallett, 2017 ; Harwood, Keegan, Smith, & Raine, 2015 ; Occhino, Mallett, Rynne, & Carlisle, 2014 ). AGT focuses on how ability is understood in a given context. According to
Doug Cooper and Justine Allen
climate,” which is a prominent concept in two theories: achievement goal theory (AGT; Ames, 1992 ; Nicholls, 1984 ) and self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000 ; Ryan & Deci, 2000 ). The Motivational Climate: Two Theoretical Perspectives or a Multidimensional Perspective The motivational
Mary E. Rudisill
For 30 years I have been interested in achievement motivation and factors that influence children’s motivation to move and learn to move. This work has been grounded in achievement goal theory, which explains what motivates individuals by how success is perceived and competence is valued (Nicholls, 1989). According to this theory, behavioral outcomes are related to goal-oriented behaviors described as task (e.g., competence and success are self-referenced) or ego (e.g., competence and success are based on the reference of others). A task-oriented goal perspective has been associated with increased enjoyment and intrinsic motivation inmovement-related activities such as sport and physical activity. Achievement goal theory also proposes that environments can be structured to emphasize factors that determine one’s goal involvement and subsequent cognitions, affect, and behaviors. In this review, I discuss mastery motivational climates and the research we have conducted related to this topic over the years.
Darren C. Treasure, Joan L. Duda, Howard K. Hall, Glyn C. Roberts, Carol Ames, and Martin L. Maehr
In a recent article, Harwood, Hardy, and Swain (2000) presented what they termed a critical analysis of the conceptualization and measurement of achievement goals in sport. The purpose of the present article is to challenge their interpretation of achievement goal theory and to question many of their subsequent recommendations. Specifically, the present response will focus on Harwood et al.’s (a) interpretation of Nicholls’ personal theories of achievement; (b) their contention that task involvement cannot exist in competitive sport; (c) the proposed tripartite conceptualization of goal involvement states; (d) their understanding of the relationship between the way an individual conceptualizes ability and the foundation of dispositional goal orientations; and (e) their criticisms of the way dispositional goal orientations have been measured in sport. Theoretical frameworks are always a work in progress. To this end, we concur with the spirit of Harwood et al.’s article which implies that our conceptual models should be continuously questioned, tested, and extended. However, we believe their interpretation and recommendations do little to enhance our conceptual understanding of achievement goal theory in sport.