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Marco Catarino Espada Estêvão Correia and Rachael Bertram

( Abraham et al., 2006 ; Lemyre, Trudel, & Durand-Bush, 2007 ; Wright et al., 2007 ) and magazines ( Reade et al., 2008 ; Schempp et al., 2007 ) have also been highlighted as a treasured learning sources, along with Internet use to facilitate the acquisition of information ( Erickson et al., 2008

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Pierre Lepage, Gordon A. Bloom and William R. Falcão

unavailable in other social circles ( Goodwin, Lieberman, Johnston, & Leo, 2011 ; Shapiro & Martin, 2010 ). The acquisition of these benefits can be facilitated by the presence of trained and skilled coaches, particularly in youth parasport ( Falcão, Bloom, & Gilbert, 2012 ; Goodwin et al., 2011 ; Smith

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Heather Anne Hayes, Nikelle Hunsaker, Sydney Y. Schaefer, Barry Shultz, Thomas Schenkenberg, Lara A. Boyd, Andrea T. White, Kenneth B. Foreman, Philip Dyer, Rebecca Maletsky and Leland E. Dibble

Deficits in sequence-specific learning (SSL) may be a product of Parkinson’s disease (PD) but this deficit could also be related to dopamine replacement. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dopamine replacement affected acquisition and retention of a standing Continuous Tracking Task in individuals with PD. SSL (difference between random/repeated Root Mean Square Error across trials) was calculated over 2 days of practice and 1 day of retention for 4 groups; 10 healthy young (HY), 10 healthy elders, 10 individuals with PD on, 9 individuals with PD off their usual dosage of dopamine replacement. Improvements in acquisition were observed for all groups; however, only the HY demonstrated retention. Therefore, age appeared to have the largest effect on SSL with no significant effect of medication. Additional research is needed to understand the influence of factors such as practice amount, task difficulty, and dopamine replacement status on SSL deficits during postural tasks.

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Edward Hebert

, & Lampton, 2010 ; Ste-Marie et al., 2012 ). Research on modeling has been guided primarily by Bandura’s ( 1986 ) Social Cognitive Theory . This theory suggests that acquisition of modeled behavior is governed by cognitive processes including attending to, coding, and rehearsing critical features of the

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Alexander T. Latinjak, Marc Masó and Nikos Comoutos

identical. In this study, we focused, on the functions of goal-directed self-talk, that is, the aims to which self-talk in used intuitively by athletes to facilitate skill acquisition and enhance performance. One major line of research on goal-directed self-talk has focused on the aims to which goal

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Iva Obrusnikova, Haley M. Novak and Albert R. Cavalier

( Billingsley, 2003 ). Because response prompts are not typically available in natural environments, the goal of instruction is to use them only as necessary and then fade them during skill acquisition, so that the participant responds correctly, and thereby independently, to just the natural cues. Wolery and

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Eduardo Bellomo, Andrew Cooke and James Hardy

verbal-analytic rules that supported skill acquisition during the early stages of learning. This results in the deautomatization of well-learned skills, characterized by the performer reverting back to a more conscious, less efficient form of control, and the dechunking of movement back to elementary

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János Négyesi, Menno P. Veldman, Kelly M.M. Berghuis, Marie Javet, József Tihanyi and Tibor Hortobágyi

, 1999 ; Porter, Sakamoto, & Asanuma, 1990 ; Sawaki, Wu, Kaelin-Lang, & Cohen, 2006 ). In contrast, an increase in afferent input through mechanical vibration or electrical stimulation can potentiate motor skill acquisition and intermanual transfer ( Rothwell & Rosenkranz, 2005 ; Veldman, Maffiuletti

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Nicole Wenderoth, Otmar Bock and Rainer Krohn

The present study investigates whether the acquisition of a rhythmical bimanual coordination pattern is influenced by existing intrinsic coordination tendencies. Participants were required to learn 1 of 5 new coordination patterns, whose relative phase ϕ was either 36, 60, or 90° away from the 0° and 180° attractors, respectively. They performed 35 trials, each consisting of 2 conditions: In the augmented feedback condition, continuous visual guidance was provided, while in the normal feedback condition participants were required to rely on normal vision of their arms. We found that all to-be-learned patterns were performed with higher accuracy in the visually guided condition, whereas interference with pre-existing coordination tendencies was more pronounced in the normal vision condition. Comparing the learning progress of the 5 groups, we found for patterns close to anti-phase, a smaller improvement and significantly larger phase errors than for patterns close to in-phase. This indicates that the acquisition of a new phase relationship is influenced by existing attractors and that the 180º attractor interfered more strongly with the to-be-learned pattern than the 0º attractor.

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Diane M. Ste-Marie

necessarily lead to motor skill acquisition benefits and considered the extant literature on the observation of applied motor tasks within the investigative technique of the 5Ws and 1H framework. That is, they framed their review around research questions associated with (1) why observation was being used (2