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Gert-Jan de Bruijn, Ruben de Groot, Bas van den Putte, and Ryan Rhodes

The present study explored the influence of the Big Five dimensions extroversion and conscientiousness on action control regarding both moderate and vigorous physical activity within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Prospective data were available from 186 respondents, who completed measures of intention, cognitive and affective attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, extroversion, conscientiousness, and physical activity at T1. Four weeks later, physical activity was assessed again. Respondents were grouped into four profiles: nonintenders, successful nonintenders, unsuccessful intenders, and successful intenders. Logistic regression analyses revealed that successful enactment in moderate physical activity was associated with extroversion, subjective norm, and affective attitude, whereas successful enactment in vigorous physical activity was associated with conscientiousness. Findings illustrate the differential role played by personality dimensions and TPB concepts in the explanation of moderate and vigorous physical activity action control.

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Matthew Y.W. Kwan, Denver M.Y. Brown, Pallavi Dutta, Imran Haider, John Cairney, and Ryan E. Rhodes

; Schwarzer, 2008 ; Schwarzer & Luszczynska, 2008 ). The Multi-Process Action Control (M-PAC) framework ( Rhodes, 2017 ) represents one such example. The M-PAC framework is best described as a harmonized model based on well-established antecedents of physical activity, which integrates regulatory and

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Benjamin Reyes Fernández, Esteban Montenegro Montenegro, Nina Knoll, and Ralf Schwarzer


Self-efficacy, action control, and social support are considered to influence changes in physical activity levels in older adults. This study examines the relationship among these variables and explores the putative mediating and moderating mechanisms that might account for activity changes.


A longitudinal study with 54 older adults (≥ 50 years of age) was carried out in Costa Rica. In a moderated mediation analysis, action control was specified as a mediator between self-efficacy and physical activity, whereas social support was specified as a moderator between self-efficacy and action control. Baseline physical activity, age, and sex were specified as covariates.


Action control mediated between self-efficacy and physical activity. An interaction between social support and self-efficacy on action control pointed to a synergistic effect at the first stage of the mediating process.


The effect of self-efficacy on physical activity was partly explained by action control, providing evidence of action control as a proximal mediator of physical activity. Moreover, the moderator role of social support was confirmed: high social support appeared to compensate for low levels of self-efficacy.

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Ryan Rhodes, Gert-Jan de Bruijn, and Deborah H. Matheson

The purpose of this study was to explore the role of habit in predicting physical activity with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The study extended previous research by (a) including a measure of temporal intention stability in the regression equation, and (b) unpacking the intention × behavior × habit relationship. Participants were 153 undergraduate students who completed a habit measure and measures of the TPB at Time 1 followed by measures of intention and behavior 2 weeks later. Results using regression analysis demonstrated that habit explained 7% additional variance after accounting for the TPB and temporal stability of intention and its interaction with intention. Follow-up analyses showed considerable asymmetry in the three-way relationship between intention, behavior, and habit, where high habit participants were composed primarily of intenders (i.e., intended to be active >3 times/week at 30 min) who engaged in regular physical activity (70%, n = 28) and low habit participants were inactive nonintenders (i.e., did not intend to be active >3 times/week at 30 min and were subsequently not active; 69%, n = 25). The results support the notion that some properties of physical activity may have an automatic component and that habits may be important to physical activity action control.

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Babett H. Lobinger, Martin K. Klämpfl, and Eckart Altenmüller

Paradoxical performance can be described simply as a sudden decrease in a top athlete’s performance despite the athlete’s having striven for superior performance, such as the lost-skill syndrome in trampolining or “the yips” in golf. There is a growing amount of research on these phenomena, which resemble movement disorders. What appears to be missing, however, is a clear phenomenology of the affected movement characteristics leading to a classification of the underlying cause. This understanding may enable specific diagnostic methods and appropriate interventions. We first review the different phenomena, providing an overview of their characteristics and their occurrence in sports and describing the affected sports and movements. We then analyze explanations for the yips, the most prominent phenomenon, and review the methodological approaches for diagnosing and treating it. Finally, we present and elaborate an action theoretical approach for diagnosing paradoxical performance and applying appropriate interventions.

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Amy Cox and Ryan E. Rhodes

for research, especially given the possibility that these periods may be a fortuitous time to promote PA and other health outcomes. The theoretical frame of this online intervention was based on the multiprocess action control (M-PAC) framework, which places changes in identity and habit at the apex

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Derek Panchuk and Michael Maloney

appears to play a role in experts’ action control ( Robalo et al., 2021 ). The eccentricities at which performers can use information is a trainable attribute ( Hüttermann & Memmert, 2018 ) and it is no surprise that experts display more sensitive attunement to peripherally located information as a result

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James R. Vallerand, Ryan E. Rhodes, Gordan J. Walker, and Kerry S. Courneya

interventions that focus primarily on helping survivors form exercise intentions may not adequately prepare participants to bridge the intention-behavior gap. 18 – 20 According to the multi-process action control framework (M-PAC), 21 initiating motivational processes (ie, instrumental attitude and perceived

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Navin Kaushal, Ryan E. Rhodes, John T. Meldrum, and John C. Spence

, demonstrated significantly higher PA over 8 weeks compared to a control group ( Kaushal, Rhodes, Spence, & Meldrum, 2017 ). The multi-process action control (M-PAC) frame was used as the schematic for habit formation in this initial trial ( Rhodes, 2017 ; Rhodes & De Bruijn, 2013 ). The M-PAC was designed to

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, and Kathleen Wilson

My Kids’ Health Behaviors, but I Don’t Always Succeed In attempting to understand health behaviors, an intention–behavior gap has been consistently identified—the relationship between the intention to perform the behavior and the actual performance of the behavior is only modest. Action control