The purpose of this study was to investigate what adapted physical activity (APA) students learn from their practicum experiences. One cohort of APA students participated, and data were generated from an action research project that included observations, reflective journals, and a focus group interview. The theoretical framework for the study was Dewey’s and Wackerhausen’s theories of reflections. The findings show the objects of students’ reflections, the kind of conceptual resources they draw on while reflecting, and their knowledge interests. In addition, two paradoxes are identified: the tension between reflecting from and on own values, and how practicum as a valued experience of reality can become too difficult to handle. In conclusion, we reflect on how practicum learning can be facilitated.
Øyvind Standal and Gro Rugseth
Steve M. Smith, Hazel Brown, and Stewart T. Cotterill
action research (AR) approach undertaken by Pain et al. ( 2012 ) was particularly successful at providing a methodology that could evaluate, adapt, and learn from interventions applied over a long period of time ( Farias, Mesquita, Hastie, & O’Donovan, 2018 ). Dohme, Bloom, Piggott, and Backhouse ( 2020
Lynne Evans, Scott Fleming, and Lew Hardy
This brief paper is intended to develop the epistemological and methodological discussion stimulated in the last edition of this journal. In the journal, our paper, “Intervention Strategies with Injured Athletes: An Action Research Study,” was published in the Professional Practice section alongside a response from David Gilbourne, “Searching for the Nature of Action Research: A Response to Evans, Hardy and Fleming” (unless otherwise indicated, citations of Gilbourne’s work in the present paper are from this source). In his critique of our paper, Gilboume addressed a set of themes and issues relating to the fundamental under-pinning principles of action research.
Shirley Gray, Paul M. Wright, Richard Sievwright, and Stuart Robertson
Stenhouse’s assertion that for teachers to engage with research, they must engage in it. Action research is a form of research that aligns well with the conceptions of professional learning espoused by Armour et al., ( 2017 ) and Garet et al. ( 2001 ), where the teacher (and colleagues or external expert
Lynne Evans, Lew Hardy, and Scott Fleming
This action research study employed a multi-modal intervention with three athletes rehabilitating from injury. The efficacy of a number of intervention strategies emerged, including social support, goal setting, imagery, simulation training, and verbal persuasion. Emotional support was perceived by athletes as important when rehabilitation progress was slow, setbacks were experienced, or other life demands placed additional pressures on participants. Task support mainly took the form of goal setting. There was support for the use of long-term and short-term goals, and both process and performance goals. The effect of outcome expectancy, rehabilitation setbacks, financial concerns, isolation, social comparison, and the need for goal flexibility emerged as salient to athletes’ responses to, and rehabilitation from, injury. In the reentry phase of rehabilitation, confidence in the injured body part, and the ability to meet game demands was perceived by participants as important to successful return to competition.
Wendy Frisby, Colleen J. Reid, Sydney Millar, and Larena Hoeber
Although there has been a rise in calls for participatory forms of research, there is little literature on the challenges of involving research participants in all phases of the research process. Actively involving research participants requires new strategies, new researcher and research-participant roles, and consideration of a number of ethical dilemmas. We analyzed the strategies employed and challenges encountered based on our experiences conducting feminist participatory action research with a marginalized population and a variety of community partners over 3 years. Five phases of the research process were considered including developing the research questions, building trust, collecting data, analyzing data, and communicating the results for action. Our goals were to demonstrate the relevance of a participatory approach to sport management research, while at the same time acknowledging some of the realities of engaging in this type of research.
Luciana De Martin Silva and John W. Francis
. Research Design A critical participatory action research (CPAR) process ( Kemmis, McTaggart, & Nixon, 2014 ) was adopted. The approach collectively positions research by bringing together academic researchers and members of a community to create or change practices ( Kemmis et al., 2014 ). It creates
Wendy Frisby, Susan Crawford, and Therese Dorer
In contrast to traditional approaches to research, participatory action research calls for the active involvement of the community—including both the beneficiaries and providers of sport services—in defining research problems, executing interventions, interpreting results, and designing strategies to change existing power structures. The purpose of this paper was to analyze a participatory action research project designed to increase the access of women living below the poverty line and their families to local physical activity services. A framework developed by Green et al. (1995) formed the basis of the analysis. To place the analysis in context, the historical origins and theoretical assumptions underlying participatory action research were addressed. The case of the Women's Action Project demonstrated how the process can result in a more inclusive local sport system and, at the same time, provide a rich setting for examining organizational dynamics including collaborative decision-making, community partnerships, power imbalances, resource control, resistance to change, and nonhierarchical structures.
B. Christine Green
Critics of youth sport have argued that competitive pressures engendered by adult supervision have robbed sport of its play and socialization values. Others contend that youth sport can be redesigned to enhance the benefits children obtain. This study describes an action research project designed to evaluate a soccer program that was devised as a child-centered alternative to traditional programs. On the basis of deliberations with the parent volunteers who created and implement the program, two surveys were designed: one for parents and one for children. Parents in the alternative program and in two traditional programs completed measures of satisfaction, sport involvement, purchase-decision involvement, and attitude. Children completed measures of satisfaction, enjoyment, and attitude. Analysis revealed that the alternative program is well-liked by parents and children, and that parents choosing the alternative program are psychographically distinct from parents who choose traditional programs. Necessary improvements in the alternative program were identified. Use of the study's findings and implications for sport programs and action research are discussed.
Esa Rovio, Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Daniel A. Weigand, Jari Eskola, and Taru Lintunen
Research investigating the use of several team building (TB) interventions collectively in one case study is sparse. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, via action research, the process of implementation of a season-long (12 months) multifaceted TB program with a junior league ice hockey team in Finland. The team consisted of 22 players, aged 15–16 years, and three coaches. Inductive content analyses revealed that performance profiling, individual and group goal setting, and role clarification produced additional value to the TB program. Group norms became a vital part of group goal setting. The results are discussed in relation to existing definitions of TB and the importance of using a multifaceted approach to TB.