Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 94 items for :

  • "active transport" x
Clear All
Restricted access

Lee Smith, Brendon Stubbs, L. Hu, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Genevieve Williams, Domenico Vicinanza, Sarah E. Jackson, Li Ying, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez and Lin Yang

coronary heart disease (eg, see Twig et al 12 ). A recent systematic review 13 on the associations between active transport and health (including a total of 24 studies from 12 countries, 15 of which included adult samples) concluded that active transport may have positive effects on health outcomes

Restricted access

Scott Duncan, Kate White, Suzanne Mavoa, Tom Stewart, Erica Hinckson and Grant Schofield

Background:

The distance between home and school is the most consistent predictor of active transport in youth: the closer an individual lives to school, the more likely they are to use active transport. While this suggests that it is preferable to live as close to school as possible, the limited physical activity accumulated during short trips may not offer substantial benefits to active transporters.

Methods:

The current study investigated the predicted physical activity benefits associated with a range of home-school distances in 595 young people aged 5 to 16 years (Years 1 to 11). Physical activity was measured using sealed pedometers over 7 days. Participants’ home addresses and usual transport mode to and from school were collected via a questionnaire completed by parents (Years 1 to 6) and participants (Years 7 to 11).

Results:

A nonlinear relationship between predicted weekday activity and distance was detected, such that the high probability of active transport at short distances was offset by the low physical activity associated with walking short distances.

Conclusions:

A distance of approximately 2 km was associated with the best physical activity outcomes related to active transport (9% to 15% increase on weekdays). These findings have potential implications for future interventions and for planning residential developments or facilities.

Restricted access

Takemi Sugiyama, Dafna Merom, Marina Reeves, Eva Leslie and Neville Owen

Background:

Television viewing time is associated with obesity risk independent of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). However, it is unknown whether the relationship of TV viewing time with body mass index (BMI) is moderated by other domains of physical activity.

Methods:

A mail survey collected height; weight; TV viewing time; physical activity for transportation (habitual transport behavior; past week walking and bicycling), for recreation (LTPA), and in workplace; and sociodemographic variables in Adelaide, Australia. General linear models examined whether physical activity domains moderate the association between BMI and TV viewing time.

Results:

Analysis of the sample (N = 1408) found that TV time, habitual transport, and LTPA were independently associated with participant’s BMI. The interaction between TV time and habitual transport with BMI was significant, while that between TV time and LTPA was not. Subgroup analyses found that adjusted mean BMI was significantly higher for the high TV viewing category, compared with the low category, among participants who were inactive and occasionally active in transport, but not among those who were regularly active.

Conclusions:

Habitual active transport appeared to moderate the relationship between TV viewing time and BMI. Obesity risk associated with prolonged TV viewing may be mitigated by regular active transport.

Restricted access

Kristiann C. Heesch and Jennifer L. Han

Background:

Policies that encourage physical activity are recommended to increase physical activity rates. Few studies have examined public support for such policies. The aim of this study was to assess support for policies that may increase active transport and correlates of this support.

Methods:

A telephone survey was administered to 460 Oklahoma residents.

Results:

Most respondents supported policies that may encourage walking and bicycling for transport. Most favored the improvement of public transportation over building new roads to address transportation concerns. In multivariate models, a positive attitude toward walking was the only variable significantly associated with support for most policy outcomes (p < 0.05). Participation in active commuting and a positive attitude toward bicycling were correlates of strong support for the creation of bike ways (p < 0.05).

Conclusions:

Experience with active commuting and positive attitudes toward walking and bicycling are associated with support for policies that may encourage walking and bicycling for transport.

Restricted access

Marj Moodie, Michelle M. Haby, Boyd Swinburn and Robert Carter

Background:

To assess from a societal perspective the cost-effectiveness of a school program to increase active transport in 10- to 11-year-old Australian children as an obesity prevention measure.

Methods:

The TravelSMART Schools Curriculum program was modeled nationally for 2001 in terms of its impact on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) measured against current practice. Cost offsets and DALY benefits were modeled until the eligible cohort reached age 100 or died. The intervention was qualitatively assessed against second stage filter criteria (‘equity,’ ‘strength of evidence,’ ‘acceptability to stakeholders,’ ‘feasibility of implementation,’ ‘sustainability,’ and ‘side-effects’) given their potential impact on funding decisions.

Results:

The modeled intervention reached 267,700 children and cost $AUD13.3M (95% uncertainty interval [UI] $6.9M; $22.8M) per year. It resulted in an incremental saving of 890 (95%UI −540; 2,900) BMI units, which translated to 95 (95% UI −40; 230) DALYs and a net cost per DALY saved of $AUD117,000 (95% UI dominated; $1.06M).

Conclusions:

The intervention was not cost-effective as an obesity prevention measure under base-run modeling assumptions. The attribution of some costs to nonobesity objectives would be justified given the program’s multiple benefits. Cost-effectiveness would be further improved by considering the wider school community impacts.

Restricted access

James Dollman and Nicole R. Lewis

This study examined whether active commuting to and from school was associated with more frequent walking and cycling to other neighborhood destinations. Parents reported on free-time physical activity and frequency of active commuting among 1,643 South Australians (9–15 years), as well as their perceptions of risk associated with active commuting in the neighborhood. Groups were formed on the basis of active and motorized transport to and from school and compared on the frequency of walking and cycling to other neighborhood destinations. Those who actively commuted between home and school were approximately 30% more likely to actively commute to other neighborhood destinations, independent of age, free-time physical activity, and neighborhood risk. Active commuting to and from school is part of a broader habit of walking and cycling in the neighborhood among school age South Australians. The advantages of promoting active transport between home and school might extend beyond the energy expenditure of that journey alone.

Restricted access

Frank C. Curriero, Nathan T. James, Timothy M. Shields, Caterina Gouvis Roman, C. Debra M. Furr-Holden, Michele Cooley-Strickland and Keshia M. Pollack

Background:

Path quality has not been well studied as a correlate of active transport to school. We hypothesize that for urban-dwelling children the environment between home and school is at least as important as the environment immediately surrounding their homes and/or schools when exploring walking to school behavior.

Methods:

Tools from spatial statistics and geographic information systems (GIS) were applied to an assessment of street blocks to create a walking path quality measure based on physical and social disorder (termed “incivilities”) for each child. Path quality was included in a multivariate regression analysis of walking to school status for a sample of 362 children.

Results:

The odds of walking to school for path quality was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.72−1.07), which although not statistically significant is in the direction supporting our hypothesis. The odds of walking to school for home street block incivility suggests the counter intuitive effect (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.08−1.19).

Conclusions:

Results suggest that urban children living in communities characterized by higher incivilities are more likely to walk to school, potentially placing them at risk for adverse health outcomes because of exposure to high incivility areas along their route. Results also support the importance of including path quality when exploring the influence of the environment on walking to school behavior.

Restricted access

Verity Booth, Alex Rowlands and James Dollman

). Physical education (PE) participation also displayed inconsistent results; however, there have been consistent declines in active transport (AT), particularly cycling. Few studies have investigated trends in PA and sedentary behavior during school play periods. Within Australia, there is no clear trend for

Restricted access

Mitch J. Duncan, Hannah M. Badland and William Kerry Mummery

Background:

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational category and 3 health-related behaviors: participation in leisure-time physical activity, active transport (AT) and occupational sitting in a sample of employed Australian adults.

Methods:

A random, cross-sectional sample of 592 adults aged 18 to 71 years completed a telephone survey in October/November 2006. Reported occupations were categorized as professional (n = 332, 56.1%), white-collar (n = 181, 30.6%), and blue-collar (n = 79, 13.3%). Relationships between occupational category and AT, sufficient physical activity and occupational sitting were examined using logistic regression.

Results:

White-collar employees (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.14−0.95) were less likely to engage in AT and more likely to engage in occupational sitting (OR = 3.10, 95% CI 1.63−5.92) when compared with blue-collar workers. Professionals (OR = 3.04, 95% CI 1.94−4.76) were also more likely to engage in occupational sitting compared with blue-collar workers. No relationship was observed between occupational category and engagement in sufficient physical activity.

Conclusions:

No association between occupational category and sufficient physical activity levels was observed, although white-collar and professionals were likely to engage in high levels of occupational sitting. Innovative and sustainable strategies are required to reduce occupational sitting to improve health.

Restricted access

Allison Ross, Ja Youn Kwon, Pamela Hodges Kulinna and Mark Searle

and biking were combined to form overall ATS. The total number of days spent actively transporting to and from school was calculated for each student with possible scores ranging from 0 to 10. Attitudes The latent construct of ATT contained 3 measured indicator variables. Parents reported their level