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Nicky Lewis, Walter Gantz, and Lawrence A. Wenner

take place when viewing live sports amidst the pull of life’s other responsibilities and individual interests. This study hopes to fill this gap by proposing sports viewers to be a particularly active audience (e.g.,  Cooper & Tang, 2012 ) that frequently engages in a wide range of concurrent behaviors

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Darcy C. Plymire

This theoretical essay applies active audience theory, convergence theory, and contemporary understandings of Web logs to an analysis of knowledge production in the antidoping movement. Using the Floyd Landis doping case as an example it examines how cycling fans and other interested parties used Internet sites such as wikis and blogs to mount a challenge to the hegemony of institutional knowledge produced by organizations such as the World Anti Doping Agency and Union Cycliste Internationale. The essay concludes that Landis’s so-called wiki defense—based as it was on popular challenges to received knowledge—was a successful contestation of normative procedures and institutional authority in the prosecution of doping allegations in international sport.

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John Horne

The tendency in discussions of media consumption in the past decade has been to move away from political economy or the “production of consumption” perspective; it has been accompanied by a growing interest in the active audience, symbolic culture, and textual analysis. Though sport and the mass media are a popular research topic in English-language publications, the major focus has been on a narrow range of advanced capitalist economies. This article on the relationship between the mass media and sport in Japan takes issue with both these emphases and contributes to on-going debates about sport, the media, and the commodification of popular culture. First, it provides a sketch of episodes in the development of the mass media in Japan—especially the newspaper press, radio, and television—in conjunction with that of sport. The focal point is the involvement of business corporations in the development of relations between professional sport and the mass media and the underlying commercial logic that steers that development. Second, by focusing on Japanese examples, the article provides additional empirical data so that similarities and contrasts can be drawn among existing accounts of the development of mediasport in advanced capitalist countries. In particular, it is argued that much of the writing about sport and the mass media has been derived from examination of “Anglo-American” experiences. Attention to media and sport in Japan, both as an economic commodity and as a vehicle for the creation of meaningful discourse about national identity, raises questions about debates concerning sport, media, and globalization.

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Melvin Lewis, Kenon A. Brown, Samuel D. Hakim, Andrew C. Billings, and Carla H. Blakey

-and-gratifications research has studied the motivations of active audience members with reference to how and why individuals select media to satisfy needs, as well as individual differences among participants ( Spinda & Puckette, 2018 ). Most important, this study examined motivational differences of NBA fans in relation to

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Dustin A. Hahn, Matthew S. VanDyke, and R. Glenn Cummins

consume these statistics in broadcasts. Given its interactive elements, FSUs fulfill the active audience assumption. With the introduction and growth of fantasy sports, both individual player (e.g., quarterback, wide receiver, running back) and team (e.g., a team’s defense) statistics have become more

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Dustin A. Hahn

viewing behavior, provides a useful theoretical framework for examining social media as it attempts to tie consumer motivations to media content. Application of the theory to social media in sport is ideal given its participatory nature and active audience. Social media research has begun to identify the

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Grace Yan, Dustin Steller, Nicholas M. Watanabe, and Nels Popp

. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 40 , 96 – 111 . doi:10.1080/08838159609364335 10.1080/08838159609364335 Cooper , R. , & Tang , T. ( 2009 ). Predicting audience exposure to television in today’s media environment: An empirical integration of active-audience and structural theories