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Ronald Howard Cox, Jared Guth, Leah Siekemeyer, Brianna Kellems, Susan Baker Brehm, and Christina M. Ohlinger

Background:

The effect of active workstation implementation on speech quality in a typical work setting remains unclear.

Purpose:

To assess differences between sitting, standing, and walking on energy expenditure and speech quality.

Methods:

Twenty-two females and 9 males read silently, read aloud, and spoke spontaneously during 3 postural conditions: sitting, standing, and walking at 1.61 km/h. Oxygen consumption (VO2), blood pressure, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were obtained during each condition. Expert listeners, blinded to the purpose of the study and the protocol, assessed randomized samples of the participants’ speech during reading and spontaneous speech tasks in 3 postural conditions.

Results:

Standing elevated metabolic rate significantly over sitting (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 3.6 ± 0.9 ml·kg−1·min−1). Walking at 1.6 km/h while performing the respective tasks resulted in VO2 values of 7.0 to 8.1 ml·kg−1·min−1. There was no significant difference in the average number of syllables included in each speech sample across the conditions. The occurrence of ungrammatical pauses was minimal and did not differ across the conditions.

Conclusion:

The significant elevation of metabolic rate in the absence of any deterioration in speech quality or RPE support the utility of using active work stations to increase physical activity (PA) in the work environment.

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Christina M. Ohlinger, Thelma S. Horn, William P. Berg, and Ronald Howard Cox

Background:

The purpose of this study was to assess participants’ ability to perform tasks requiring attention, short term memory, and simple motor skill while sitting, standing or walking at an active workstation.

Methods:

Fifty participants completed the Stroop Color Word test (SCWT), Auditory Consonant Trigram test (ACTT), and Digital Finger Tapping test (DFTT) while sitting, standing and walking 1.6 km/h at an active workstation.

Results:

A significant difference was found for DFTT, but no differences across conditions were found on ACTT or SCWT. Examination of the linear contrasts and post hoc means comparison tests revealed significant differences in DFTT scores between sitting and walking (t = 2.39 (49) P < .02) and standing and walking (t = 2.28 (49) P < .03). These results indicate that adding the walking task to the ACTT and SCWT conditions results in no decrement in performance on these tasks. Conversely, adding the walking task to the DFTT condition results in reduced performance on the DFTT task.

Conclusions:

These results further support the potential of active workstations to increase physical activity in the workplace without compromising cognitive capabilities.

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Chunmei Cao, Yu Liu, Weimo Zhu, and Jiangjun Ma

Background:

Recently developed active workstation could become a potential means for worksite physical activity and wellness promotion. The aim of this review was to quantitatively examine the effectiveness of active workstation in energy expenditure and job performance.

Methods:

The literature search was conducted in 6 databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and Scopuse) for articles published up to February 2014, from which a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted.

Results:

The cumulative analysis for EE showed there was significant increase in EE using active workstation [mean effect size (MES): 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22 to 1.72, P < .0001]. Results from job performance indicated 2 findings: (1) active workstation did not affect selective attention, processing speed, speech quality, reading comprehension, interpretation and accuracy of transcription; and (2) it could decrease the efficiency of typing speed (MES: –0.55; CI: –0.88 to –0.21, P < .001) and mouse clicking (MES: –1.10; CI: –1.29 to –0.92, P < .001).

Conclusion:

Active workstation could significantly increase daily PA and be potentially useful in reducing workplace sedentariness. Although some parts of job performance were significantly lower, others were not. As a result there was little effect on real-life work productivity if we made a good arrangement of job tasks.

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Kapria-Jad Josaphat, Élise Labonté-Lemoyne, Sylvain Sénécal, Pierre-Majorique Léger, and Marie-Eve Mathieu

Recently, standing desks and other active workstations have been proposed as a strategy to reduce prolonged sitting time. Standing desks have been specifically designed to increase the physical demand of desk-bound occupations by allowing for an easy and rapid switch from seated to standing position during

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Margina Ruiter, Charly Eielts, Sofie Loyens, and Fred Paas

seems the preeminent, recommendable setting for increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time among children. 9 , 10 One promising method to increase physical activity in the classroom is through the use of active workstations, which are a relatively novel intervention. 11 Some workstations

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John M. Schuna Jr., Daniel S. Hsia, Catrine Tudor-Locke, and Neil M. Johannsen

(treadmill desks and pedal desks) represent what has previously been termed active workstation alternatives. 12 The use of workstation alternatives represents a modification to the typical working environment that is intended to provide increases in EE above that associated with seated office work and/or to

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Brandon L. Alderman, Ryan L. Olson, and Diana M. Mattina

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of walking at self-selected speed on an active workstation on cognitive performance.

Methods:

Sixty-six participants (n = 27 males, 39 females; mean age = 21.06 ± 1.6 years) completed a treadmill-desk walking and a seated control condition, separated by 48 hours. During each condition, participants completed computerized versions of the Stroop test, a modified flanker task, and a test of reading comprehension.

Results:

No significant differences in response speed or accuracy were found between walking and sitting conditions for any the cognitive tests.

Conclusions:

These findings reveal that performance on cognitive tasks, including executive control processes, are not impaired by walking on an active workstation. Implementing active workstations into offices and classrooms may help to decrease sedentariness without impairing task performance.

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David Thivel, Pauline Genin, Alicia Fillon, Marwa Khammassi, Johanna Roche, Kristine Beaulieu, Graham Finlayson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Martine Duclos, Angelo Tremblay, Bruno Pereira, and Lore Metz

working. 15 , 16 While most of the studies conducted so far investigated the effects of such active workstations on total physical activity and sedentary time 15 , 16 as well as cognitive performance 17 among others, it remains unknown whether they can also affect EI and appetite control. This issue is

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Pauline M. Genin, Frédéric Dutheil, Benjamin Larras, Yoland Esquirol, Yves Boirie, Angelo Tremblay, Bruno Pereira, Corinne Praznoczy, David Thivel, and Martine Duclos

work—either by introducing activity breaks, providing active workstations, or by office design 6 —the expert panel encourages their promotion and adoption, along with physical activity incentives (such as the availability of exercise stations [bikes for instance], encouragement for active meetings, etc

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Robert J. Kowalsky, Sophy J. Perdomo, John M. Taormina, Christopher E. Kline, Andrea L. Hergenroeder, Jeffrey R. Balzer, John M. Jakicic, and Bethany Barone Gibbs

increased levels of discomfort, 5 it is an important to develop interventions to improve discomfort resulting from prolonged sitting in this population. Strategies to reduce workplace sedentary behavior and related discomfort and fatigue include walking or activity breaks and active workstations. 6 , 7