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Christine E. Roberts, Louise H. Phillips, Clare L. Cooper, Stuart Gray and Julia L. Allan

, Population Division, 2013 ). Advanced age involves structural and functional deterioration of most physiological systems ( Chodzko-Zajko et al., 2009 ) which may negatively impact an individual's ability to carry out activities of daily living (ADL) such as grooming, feeding, mobilizing, and continence

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Dorothy D. Dunlop, Jing Song, Emily K. Arntson, Pamela A. Semanik, Jungwha Lee, Rowland W. Chang and Jennifer M. Hootman

Background:

The harmful relationship of sedentary behavior to health may reflect an exchange of sedentary activity for moderateto- vigorous physical activity (MVPA), or sedentary behavior may be a separate risk factor. We examined whether time spent in sedentary behavior is related to disability in activities of daily living (ADL), independent of time spent in MVPA in older adults.

Methods:

The nationally representative 2003−2006 National Health and Nutrition Examinations Surveys (NHANES) included 2286 adults aged 60 years and older in whom physical activity was assessed by accelerometer. The association between ADL task disability and the daily percentage of sedentary time was evaluated by multiple logistic regression.

Results:

These adults on average spent 9h/d being sedentary during waking hours and 4.5% reported ADL disability. The odds of ADL disability were 46% greater (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.07−1.98) for each daily hour spent in sedentary behavior, adjusted for MVPA and socioeconomic and health factors.

Conclusion:

These US national data show a strong relationship between greater time spent in sedentary behavior and the presence of ADL disability, independent of time spent in moderate or vigorous activity. These findings support programs encouraging older adults to decrease sedentary behavior regardless of their engagement in moderate or vigorous activity.

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Chiung-ju Liu, Leah Y. Jones, Alyssa R. M. Formyduval and Daniel O. Clark

The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the 3-Step Workout for Life program, a 10-week exercise program that included moderate-intensity muscle strength training followed by task-oriented training. Fourteen participants completed the program (mean age = 73 years; SD = 6.83). The Box and Block test (Z = −2.24, p = .03) and the 30-s chair stand test (Z = −2.21, p = .03) indicate improved physical functioning of the upper and lower extremities. More importantly, results of the function component from the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (Z = −2.04, p = .04) and motor skills scale from the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (Z = −2.97, p = .003) indicate subjective and objective improvements on performing activities of daily living. Supplementing moderate-intensity muscle strength exercise with taskoriented training components is feasible. Preliminary data support the effectiveness of 3-Step Workout for Life in reducing late-life disability.

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Yuhanis Adnan, Alex McKenzie and Motohide Miyahara

The purpose was to compare quad rugby male athletes with a lesion-matched group of persons without quad rugby experience on self-efficacy expectations for performing quad rugby skills (SEQRS) and activities of daily living (SEADL) skills. Each group contained 15 participants. The experimental design was ex post facto. Mann-Whitney U Tests revealed that quad rugby participants scored significantly higher on all 11 items comprising the SEQRS and 4 of the 28 items comprising SEADL. Correlations between SEQRS and SEADL were .75 and .92 for the QR participants and nonparticipants, respectively.

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Wolfram Haslinger, Lisa Müller, Nejc Sarabon, Christian Raschner, Helmut Kern and Stefan Löfler

Objective:

To determine the effectiveness of exercise in improving sensorimotor function and functional performance, crucial parts of activities of daily living in healthy older adults.

Design:

RCT.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

39 subjects (M = 71.8 years, range: 61–89 years).

Intervention:

Task-oriented visual feedback balance training.

Primary outcome measure:

Timed Up & Go (TUG).

Secondary outcome measures:

Chair stand test (CST), self-paced walk test, maximum isometric torque, quiet stand posturography, and dynamic balance (DB).

Results:

Postintervention comparison of the treatment group (TG) and control group (CG) showed better TUG (p < .01), CST (p < .001), and DB (p < .025) for the TG. Pre–post intervention comparison of the TG showed better clinically-relevant outcomes in TUG (p < .001), CST (p < .001), and DB (p < .001).

Conclusion:

Active driven visual feedback balance training is effective in improving functional performance and dynamic balance in older adults.

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Ching-Yi Wang, Ming-Hsia Hu, Hui-Ya Chen and Ren-Hau Li

To determine the test–retest reliability and criterion validity of self-reported function in mobility and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults, a convenience sample of 70 subjects (72.9 ± 6.6 yr, 34 male) was split into able and disabled groups based on baseline assessment and into consistently able, consistently disabled, and inconsistent based on repeat assessments over 2 weeks. The criterion validities of the self-reported measures of mobility domain and IADL-physical subdomain were assessed with concurrent baseline measures of 4 mobility performances, and that of the self-reported measure of IADL-cognitive subdomain, with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Test–retest reliability was moderate for the mobility, IADL-physical, and IADL-cognitive subdomains (κ = .51–.66). Those who reported being able at baseline also performed better on physical- and cognitive-performance tests. Those with variable performance between test occasions tended to report inconsistently on repeat measures in mobility and IADL-cognitive, suggesting fluctuations in physical and cognitive performance.

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Hee Sik Kim and Kiyoji Tanaka

The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which a battery of 24 activities of daily living (ADL) performance tasks could be used to determine functional age in a sample of older women. The subjects were 253 older adult Korean women, aged 60 to 91 years. All subjects completed a comprehensive battery of 24 performance tests related to common activities of daily living. Correlations between the measures were computed, and principal component analysis was applied to the 24 × 24 correlation matrix. A principal component score was computed for each subject and was found to decrease significantly with advancing age. Multiple regression analysis revealed that out of the initial 24 variables, 5 variables accounted for 81% of the variability. An equation was developed to determine ADL age; the equation was considered useful for the assessment of daily living activities of older adult Korean women.

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Dagny Bengs, Ira Jeglinsky, Jukka Surakka, Thomas Hellsten, Joachim Ring and Jyrki Kettunen

Context: Using technical clothes with electrodes embedded in the clothing makes it possible to record the electrical activity produced by the activity of the skeletal muscles in activities of daily living. Objective: To investigate the reliability of measuring lower-limb left-right electromyography (EMG) activity ratio with smart shorts during stair descent, stair ascent, and repeated unloaded squats among healthy working-aged subjects. Methods: Seventeen females (mean age 25.5 y), and 17 males (mean age 29.9 y) participated in this test-retest protocol carried out twice on the same day. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) varied from .65 to .80 in the different activities. Mean difference and limits of agreement (LOA) between the repeated measurements were for descending stairs –0.8%, LOA –6.2% to 4.7%; for ascending stairs –0.9%, –6.5% to 4.7%; and for squats –0.2%, –5.4% to 4.9%. The coefficient of repeatability for descending stairs was 5.6%, for ascending stairs 5.7%, and for squats 5.3%. Conclusions: Our study among healthy subjects showed that the left-right EMG activity ratio in activities of daily living can be reliably measured with smart shorts. In future research, the feasibility of technical clothes as a follow-up method in rehabilitation should be investigated in greater detail.

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Jessica C. Dobek, Karen N. White and Katherine B. Gunter

The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which a novel training program based on activities of daily living (ADL) would affect performance of ADLs, as well as the fitness of older adults. Fourteen individuals (mean age 82 years) took part in a 10-week control period followed by a 10-week ADL-based training program. Pre- and posttests included the Physical Performance Test (PPT), the Physical Functional Performance–10 (PFP-10), and the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). After the training period, improvements ranging from 7% to 33% (p < .05) were seen on the PPT and PFP-10 and on three items of the SFT. After conversion to standard scores, the magnitude of change in the PPT and the PFP-10 was significantly greater (p < .05) than the magnitude of change in the SFT. These data support the idea that this novel ADL-based training program was able to facilitate improved performance of ADLs, as well as select measures of fitness among older adults.

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Tao Chen, Kenji Narazaki, Yuka Haeuchi, Sanmei Chen, Takanori Honda and Shuzo Kumagai

Background:

This cross-sectional study was performed to examine associations of objectively measured sedentary time (ST) and breaks in sedentary time (BST) with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability in Japanese community-dwelling older adults.

Methods:

The sample comprised 1634 older adults (mean age: 73.3 y, men: 38.4%). Sedentary behavior was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Disability was defined as inability in at least 1 of the IADL tasks using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence.

Results:

After adjusting for potential confounders and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), longer ST was significantly associated with higher likelihood of IADL disability, whereas a greater number of BST was associated with lower likelihood of IADL disability. ST and BST remained statistically significant after mutual adjustment with odds ratio of 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI)], 1.00–1.70) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.65–0.99), respectively.

Conclusions:

This study first demonstrated that shorter ST and more BST were associated with lower risk of IADL disability independent of MVPA and that the association for ST was independent of BST and vice versa. These findings suggest not only total ST but also the manner in which it is accumulated may contribute to the maintenance of functional independence in older adults.